Skip to main content

Full text of "Art in glass: a guide to the glass collections"

See other formats


a guide to the glass collections 







AET 



in 



GLASS 



The Toledo Museum of Art 




stviT\S^o 



^ 





\^it^ 



^ 




/\ 



. <im 



.omj, 



'mw 



mmm/mf 





tf\^0. 



art in glass 




_. __ , = — _ 




\LASS 
al polychrome 
glass mural was executed especially for the 
Museum by Dominick Labino. Polychrome cast 
glass. 96',!<i by 108% inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Dominick Labino, 1969. 



a guide to the glass collections 



ART 

in 

GLASS 



The Toledo Museum of Art 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



Vignettes in this Guide in sections other 
than those dealing in American and Modern 
glass have been taken from Denise Diderot, 
Encyclopedic ou Dictionnaire Raissone des 
Sciences des Arts et des Metiers, Paris, 
1751, 1762-65. 68.58. Gift of Urban E. Bowes, 
Perrysburg, Ohio. 

The vignettes in the sections of this Guide 
dealing with American and Modern glass 
have been taken from Kate Field, The 
Drama of Glass printed by The Libbey 
Glass Company, Toledo, n.d., and now in 
the archival collection of the Museum. Gift 
of Mrs. Robert Roberts, Toledo, Ohio. Other 
details have been taken from glassware ad- 
vertisements in the Archives of the Museum. 
Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 

Other vignettes are taken from decorative 
details of objects in the glass collections of 
the Museum. 



Library of Congress 
Catalogue Card No. 72-108877 

© The Toledo Museum of Art 1969 



CONTENTS 



INTRODUCTION 



ANCIENT GLASS 

The Pre-Christian Era, 14th-lst century B.C 
The Christian Era, lst-6th century A.D. 




13 
21 



ISLAMIC GLASS 

6th-18th century A.D. 



35 



EUROPEAN GLASS 

The Renaissance, 1450-1600 
The Baroque Era, 1600-1730 
Rococo to Victorian, 1730-1850 



45 
55 
69 



AMERICAN GLASS 

The Early American Period, 1739-1830 
The Middle Period, 1830-1880 
The Brilliant Period, 1880-1915 



83 

95 

109 



MODERN GLASS 
1895 to the present 

SOME TECHNICAL TERMS 
SUGGESTED READING 



127 

139-140 

141 




"The Art oj Glass being one oj the Most Noble and 
Curious of all other Arts, and the Wonderjulness oj 
it, both in the Simplicity oj the Matter, whereoj it 
is made, and in the Formation oj it; as also the 
various Colours it is capable oj receiving, appear- 
ing so Curious and Entertaining, chiefly engaged 
my Thoughts in the Study oj its Principles, and to 
penetrate into the most hidden Secrets oj it." 



The ART OF GLASS, H. Blancourt, translated from the 
French, London, 1699. 



WHAT IS GLASS? 



Glass is a hard, brittle, fragile material almost unique in that 
it is among the very few apparently solid materials which have 
no crystalline structure. It has been described as a "super-cooled 
liquid;" that is, a substance that has passed from a liquid into 
a rigid state without structural change. Glass occurs in a natural 
state as the volcanic substance, obsidian. The history of its 
artificial state (that is, man-made) goes back some 4000 years. 
Its origin is not known. 

The delightful myth, as related by Pliny in his Natural History, 
that glass was first discovered accidentally by Syrian 
merchants who, while building a campfire on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, caused sand to be fused by heat, is of course 
only a romantic legend recorded by a Roman author almost 2000 
years after the fact. No campfire would be hot enough to 
fuse silica with the other components of glass. 

Whatever its origin, glass remains one of the least expensive 
materials, one of the most recalcitrant to work, among the most 
ancient in continuous use by man. However, glass has not 
always been a common and inexpensive commodity. The small 
vessels made in ancient Egypt were rare and costly, and 
were used to contain expensive perfumes and unguents. Roman 
glass cameos were as rare as those made of other precious 
materials, and as valuable. Even glass tableware and drinking 
vessels were not available in quantity and only persons of 
considerable wealth could afford to drink from fragile glass. The 
availability of glass in almost unlimited quantity and variety 
is a miracle less than a century old. It tends to blunt our 
appreciation of the extraordinary rarity and value of early glass. 

The methods and ingredients used to make glass and the 

tools used to form it, have probably changed less throughout the 

centuries than those used in any other art. Glass is unique 

among materials available to artists in that it must be worked at 

a temperature too hot to handle. The earliest glass was fused 

in molds to make beads or formed around sand cores to make small 

vessels. The most revolutionary event in glassmaking was 

the introduction of the blowpipe. Historians do not know when 

this occurred, but it is generally dated shortly before the birth 

of Christ. From that time to the present, gravity, temperature, and 

constant movement of the molten material have played a 

major part in forming objects of glass. Unlike any other artisan, 

the glassmaker must keep his work at arms length as he 

shapes the molten material with blowpipe, wood forms, and metal 

tools. He may not touch or mold the object with his hands 

as can the sculptor or potter with clay; nor may he have the 



w> 




direct contact available to the painter as he brushes 
pigment on canvas or paper. 

The basic fact that glass is a liquid has always affected the forms 
made from it. Glass art objects have unique properties and 
are different from any other. The ingredients have changed very 
little. The earliest glass was a composition of sand, soda and 
lime (silica, sodium and calcium oxide) fused by heat. These 
simple inorganic substances have continued in use ever 
since, although variations have occurred in their proportions. Al 
various times potash and lead have been substituted to vary 
the quality of the glass, and color has been added by use of copper, 
manganese, cobalt and other minerals. While style, period 
and country have altered the shape, decoration, color and use 
of glass, the fluid nature of the material has remained 
constant throughout the centuries. 

Glass is relatively stable, little subject to natural deterioration. 
Examples of glass objects have survived in ancient tombs 
long after many other materials have completely disintegrated. 
For this reason, available artifacts of glass can tell us much 
about past civilizations and can provide a more continuous 
sequence over the centuries than can objects of almost 
any other material except pottery. 

It is appropriate that Toledo's Museum should have one of the 
most significant collections of glass, for a major factor in the 
city's economy is the glass industry. Edward Drummond Libbey, 
who brought his glass company from Cambridge, Massachusetts, 
to Toledo in 1888, founded this city's predominant industry which 
continued to prosper and to proliferate in the succeeding 
decades. Mr. Libbey and a group of his associates founded The 
Toledo Museum of Art in 1901. As the Museum's principal 
benefactor he acquired and gave to the Museum the largest part 
of its important collection of ancient glass. In 1913, a year 
after the first part of the present Museum building was dedicated, 
Mr. Libbey began to acquire glass for it. Since that time, 
the glass collections have steadily grown and today comprise 
some 5000 items. 

To a large degree, Toledo's glass holdings could be described as a 
collection of collections. While numerous pieces have been 
acquired individually, a larger portion came from famous private 
collections of glass. In 1913, 80 pieces of European glass were 
acquired from the collection of Julius Campe of Hamburg, 
Germany, and four years later Mr. Libbey bought and presented 
to the Museum more than 450 items of all periods from the 
Philadelphia collector, Edwin A. Barber. 



10 




The largest single acquisition of glass was the gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Libbey in 1923 of the greater part of the collection of Thomas 
E. H. Curtis of Plainfield, New Jersey. This collection, numbering 
in the thousands, consisted of ancient and Islamic glass and is 
probably the largest private collection of its scope ever formed. 

In 1950, the Museum acquired nearly 50 pieces consisting mainly 
of rare German engraved and enamelled glass from the noted 
collection of Frederic Neuburg of Leitmeritz, Czechoslovakia, 
providing a balance to the Campe Collection which was 
predominately Italian. The American collections were enriched 
in 1959 by the superb group of 55 early pieces from the 
collection of George McKearin of Hoosick Falls, New York. 

The 1960's brought to the Museum the finest known collection of 
American pressed glass, the gift of its owner Mrs. Harold G. 
Duckworth of Springfield, Massachusetts. In addition, the 
Owens-Illinois Glass Company gave a large number of New 
England Glass Company and Libbey wares which together 
with a previous gift in 1951 totals some 250 pieces. 

This publication marks the reinstallation of the collections in a 
new gallery, the gift of the Museum's President, Harold 
Boeschenstein and his wife. Mr. Boeschenstein continues the 
great tradition begun by Mr. Libbey of leaders in the glass 
industry who have also been Museum presidents. 

The chapters which follow, describe and illustrate in chronological 
sequence glass through the ages. Previous collections, where 
known, are noted in the captions with the exception of the 
extensive Curtis Collection, where objects may be recognized by 
an accession number beginning with 23. All glass has been 
acquired from Mr. Libbey's collection or with funds from his 
bequest, unless another donor is specifically designated in 
the captions. Rudolf M. Riefstahl and John W. Keefe, of the 
Museum's curatorial staff, are responsible for the text and 
captions. We are also indebted to Museum colleagues and scholars, 
both in this country and abroad, for much valuable advice. 

We are grateful to the Museum's Honorary Curator of Glass, 
Dominick Labino, whose advice has been of inestimable value on 
many technical questions and problems of installation. He 
also created the unique glass mural at the gallery's entrance 
which surely ranks as one of the greatest creative works of 
art in glass of our century. It is a gift of the artist and his wife. 
Its colorful warmth welcomes us to the world of glass 
illustrated in the pages which follow. 

Otto Wittmann 
Director 



11 



ANCIENT GLASS 









RIBBON GLASS. Mold fused translucent and 
tvjisted thread glass. Alexandria or Rome, 1st 
century B.C.-lst century A.D. (left to right) 
Bottle. 5Yi inches high. 23.1448. Bowl. Diameter 
3 1: 54e inches. 68.87. Dish. Diameter 4% inches. 
23.1490. Bottle. 3% inches high. 23.407. Bottle. 4 
inches high. 23.1486. 



Pre-Christian Era 

14th century B.C. — 1st century B.C. 



The first piece of glass ever produced has 
almost certainly decayed and become once 
more the elements of sand, lime, and soda 
from which it was made. We can at best only 
make intelligent guesses as to where, when, 
and how glass manufacturing originated. 
Scholarly opinion is still divided as to 
whether Egypt or Mesopotamia and Syria 
has the prior claim. The earliest surviving 
glass vessels, however, are Egyptian and 
date from the Eighteenth Dynasty, about 
1500 B.C. Earlier small, solid beads and in- 
lays can be related to ceramic glazes which 
have a history in Egypt going back to about 
4000 B.C. 

Today, we usually think of glass in terms 
of hand blown tableware or machine blown 
bottles, but for 1500 years before the birth 
of Christ vessels were made by methods that 
involved no blowing at all. It is likely that 
the first true glass vessels were developed 
from accidental misfiring of ceramic glazes 
or from improperly formulated "Egyptian 
faience," a synthesized ceramic with prop- 
erties akin to glass. It may seem odd to us — 
being technologically oriented — that it took 
so long to develop a true glass industry from 
such a long tradition of ceramic glazes, but 
there are two major factors to bear in mind. 
The first is that all the forming of ceramic 
products is done while the materials are 
damp and cold. The idea of forming a sim- 
ilar material at molten heat with an equiv- 
alent degree of control would obviously 
require a fair degree of creative imagination. 
The other factor is the difference between 
a kiln and a furnace. To "mature" a ceramic 
ware, it must be brought up to a certain 
temperature in a closed kiln. That is to say, 
a cold formed object is heated to create the 
finished product. With glass, on the other 
hand, a process nearly opposite is required. 
The raw materials must be withdrawn hot 
from an open furnace to be formed either 



13 



with tools or in a mold, and then placed in 
an oven for controlled cooling. The shift in 
the function of heat source from ceramics 
to glass is considerable, while the apparent 
reversal of the forming-firing sequence 
could seem a major technological revolution. 

Hot-formed glass, however, was not the only 
method available to the ancient glass work- 
er. Using a solid block or a heavy, roughly- 
shaped blank formed by casting or pressing, 
he could slowly and laboriously lathe-grind 
or wheel-cut a vessel from cold glass. Fur- 
ther, he could hot-form mosaic-like canes 
and later cut them cold for use in richly 
colored patterned inlays, or, with reheating, 
in dishes, bowls, and other shapes. Although 
the introduction of glass blowing in the late 
1st century B.C. widened the range of pos- 
sibilities in glass enormously, there is none- 
theless great richness of decoration and 
variety of invention apparent in pre-Chris- 
tian vessels. 

To localize the place of manufacture of an- 
cient glass is often difficult. Similarity of 
color and composition of pieces found at 
widely separated sites suggest that there 
was an extensive trade in glass ingots 
around the eastern half of the Ancient 
World. Ingots, shipped from a few central 
locations, could be crushed or powdered for 
remelting in small local furnaces. The same 
trade routes also allowed the export of spe- 
cialized types from one workshop to scat- 
tered markets. Heavy demand for glass 
vessels in a given area could possibly have 
caused migration of glass workers from one 
place to another. It appears, then, that glass 
as an industry functioned in ancient com- 
merce in a manner similar to that of today, 
but with slower communication lines and a 
workshop rather than a factory technology. 
One enormous difference, however, stands 
out: ancient glass was a commodity of high 



luxury and, before the development of glass 
blowing, was owned by only the very 
wealthy. The presence of glass objects, along 
with articles of gold and silver in ancient 
burials, signifies the respect with which this 
fragile, colorful, difficultly wrought mate- 
rial was regarded. 

The earliest glass vessels that can be reliably 
dated are Egyptian sand-core wares of the 
Eighteenth Dynasty (1567-1320 B.C.) .These 
were formed by spreading molten glass over 
a friable, sand-based core. Decoration was 
provided occasionally by glass inlay, but 
more often by trailing and combing hot 
threads of glass of contrasting colors on the 
body glass. Feet, handles, and spouts were 
tooled out or added on. These vessels, small 
in size, are thought to be containers. They 
are usually brightly colored and opaque or 
slightly translucent. Simple as the means of 
production appear to have been, the assur- 
ance of execution evident in most sand-core 
wares indicates a highly developed craft 
tradition. 

In addition to sand-core, Eighteenth Dy- 
nasty glassworkers made delicate glass in- 
lays for jewelry. The tomb of Tut-ankh-amon 
yielded furniture inlaid with mold-pressed 
glass reliefs, as well as a remarkable head- 
rest ground from two massive pieces of tur- 
quoise glass. 

We can presume wares in Syria or Meso- 
potamia analogous to those of Egypt. Little 
glass from these areas, however, has sur- 
vived, owing to unfavorable climatic condi- 
tions and poorly preserved tombs. If the 
mold-pressed translucent blue necklace ro- 
settes and other small objects of 13th cen- 
tury B.C. Mycenaen Greece can be taken 
as evidence, glassmaking in Minoan Crete 
could also have been extensively practiced 
before the social and economic upheavals of 
the 12th to 9th centuries, which, to judge 



14 



SAND-CORE ALABASTRON. Whitish trails on 
blue body. Mesopotamia (?), 8th-7th century B.C. 
3% inches high. 61.39. 



from the scarcity of examples, must have 
been disastrous for the ancient glass 
industry. 

By the 8th century B.C., glass vessels reap- 
pear in larger quantity, but, owing to the 
decline of Egypt as a Mediterranean power, 
few, if any, objects of subsequent centuries 
can be positively associated with the Nile 
Valley until the arrival of the Greeks in the 
late 4th century B.C. Sand-core wares grow 
in quantity from the 7th century until the 
last century before Christ. They are found 
throughout the eastern Mediterranean. 
Their wide dispersal is probably due to an 
increased number of production centers and 
to the emergence of the Phoenicians as sea 
traders. Among the characteristic types is 
a 6th century ware in which straight and 
zigzag manganese purple stripes are trailed 
onto an opaque white body color to achieve 
a simple but striking effect. Others combine 
multicolored trails combed in a feather pat- 
tern on varying body colors (often almost 
black and rarely the turquoise of the Eigh- 
teenth Dynasty) to produce rich contrasts 
in design. The shapes of the later sand-core 
wares, as those of the earlier Egyptian, tend 
to follow shapes found in ceramics, but on 
a miniature scale, affording one means of 
assigning rough dates to individual items. 

In Syria and Mesopotamia the tradition of 
massive cutting and grinding survived and 
was transmitted to the Hellenistic World. 
There is a series of clear, nearly colorless or 
blue-green bowls, often hemispherical, dat- 
ing from the 8th to the 1st century B.C. 
These were probably cast or mold-pressed 
and then lathe or wheel-ground to a final 
contour. Some are fluted and most at least 
have lathe-cut rings of simple elegance. 
Judging from recorded finds, these bowls 
were probably made in the northeast Medi- 
terranean area. Some of them are evident 




translations of metalwork in their design. 
In Egypt under the Ptolemies starting in the 
late 4th century B.C., a sophisticated court 
in Alexandria created demands for precious 
luxuries that led to a revival of the Egyptian 
glass industry. From the trailing and comb- 
ing of colored threads on a sand-core vase 
to creating a bundled cane of multicolored 
threads is a logical step and one which pos- 
sibly led to the invention of the fused mo- 
saic technique. Such a bundle of canes could 
be hot-drawn to a very small cross-section 
and then sliced cold for inlays of almost 
microscopically fine detail which could be 
used in furniture and small objects. Slices 
could also be laid together in molds and 
fused together with heat to produce bowls 
and dishes of great richness. This type of 
work is called millefiori (thousand flowers) 
and with related techniques persisted until 
well on in the Christian Era. The demand 
for colorful variety also encouraged the 
manufacture of vessels with fused ribbons 
(some with gold leaf) and lacy twists of yel- 
low or white in a clear matrix as well as 
imitations of onyx and agate. Many of the 
millefiori wares were lathe-ground and 
grooved in a manner similar to that em- 
ployed on the clear bowls. While Alexandria 
seems to be the most likely center for the 
production of these decorative glasses, it is 
possible that Palestine, Syria, and Rome also 
produced similar types. 

The Ptolemaic period in Egypt also saw the 
revival of mold-pressed figural reliefs of 
opaque glass. Some of these are difficult to 
distinguish from similar Eighteenth Dynasty 
types and indicate that the romance of Egypt 
captured the Hellenistic court established on 
the Nile by Alexander the Great. 



15 



EGYPTIAN SAND-CORE VESSELS. Polychrome 
trails on blue body. Egypt, 18th Dynasty, about 
1350 B.C. (left to right) Column Flask. 3% inches 
high. 67.2. Vase. 4% inches high. 51.405. Vase. 
3 1! )i6 inches high. 35.55. Column Flask. 4% inches 
high. 66.14. 




NECKLACE. Mold-pressed translucent blue glass 
rosettes (weathered) with glassy faience links. 
Mycenaean, 14th-13th century B.C. 11 inches long. 
53.139. 




17 



SAND-CORE ALABASTRON. Yellow and white 
trails on translucent brown body. Eastern 
Mediterranean, 5th-4th century B.C. 7 1 Vi G inches 
high. 67.3. 



AMULET OF AST ARTE. Mold-pressed translucent 
blue glass. Eastern Mediterranean, possibly Syria, 
15th century B.C. or later. 3 inches high. 23.195. 






MOLD-PRESSED INLAYS, (left to right) Opaque 
red, blue and green glass. Egypt, Ptolemaic or 
early Roman, 3rd century B.C. -1st century A.D. 
Baboon. 3% t7ich.es high. 40.170. Crowned head. 
1% inches high. 40.172. 



18 



EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN SAND-CORE 
VESSELS, (left to right) Amphora. Blue and yellow 
trails on olive-green body. 2nd century B.C. 
6V S inches high. 23.126. Stamnos. Turquoise, yellow 
and white trails on translucent dark blue body. 
Possibly Syria, 4th-3rd century B.C. 3 1 /!' inches high. 
23.128. Oinochoe. Purple trails on white body. 
6th-4th century B.C. 4% inches high. 23.159. 
Alabastron. Turquoise, yellow and white trails on 
deep blue body. Possibly Rhodes, 6th-4th century 
B.C. 7 inches high. 23.178. 




19 




BOWL. Pale blue-green translucent glass, 
lathe-ground and wheel-cut. Alexandria or Greece, 
2nd century B.C. Diameter 3% inches. 23.1071. 



BOTTLE. Lathe-cut polychrome gold-band glass. 
Alexandria or Italy (Cumae), 2nd-lst century 
B.C. 2Vi inches high. 67.9. 



BOWL. Yellow and green lathe-ground milVefiori 
hemisphere, blue and white spiral rim. Alexandria 
or Italy, 3rd-2nd century B.C. Diameter 5%e 
inches. 67.10. 





20 




Glass of the Christian Era 

1st century A.D. — 6th century A.D. 



Shortly before the birth of Christ, a now 
nameless — probably Syrian — glass worker 
realized, perhaps through an accident with 
the nozzle of a furnace bellows, that glass 
could be gathered on the end of a metal pipe 
and formed by inflation. This discovery, 
combined with the prosperity of the rising 
Roman Empire, was to make glass available 
to a far wider public than before, although 
in ancient times it never became the com- 
monplace material it is today. As luxury 
ware, however, glass had to compete with 
vessels of semi-precious stone, gold, and 
silver. The cold finishing processes of lathe- 
grinding and wheel-engraving imposed 
technical difficultities on the glassworker 
that exceeded those encountered in other 
materials. Among the earliest blown vessels, 
those blown in a mold predominate. By 
blowing in a reusable patterned mold, the 
glass could be given both form and surface 
pattern in one operation, an achievement 
difficult if not impossible in other materials. 
To judge from surviving examples, Sidon 
on the Mediterranean coast of Syria was a 
major center of mold-blown glass output. 
Some of the Sidonian glassmakers were 
sufficiently proud of their work to incor- 
porate their names in their patterned molds. 
The most famous of these was Ennion, 
whose work is notable for elegance of form 
and precision of pattern. 

Another group of Sidonian mold-blown 
beakers and bowls is remarkable for the 
molded inscriptions advising the buyer to 
remember the maker's name or welcoming 
the visitor who used the vessel. 

Many early mold-blown pieces are very 
light and thin and show no signs of having 
been blown on a blowpipe. Recent scholar- 
ship indicates that these small vessels often 
of eggshell thinness were not fashioned on 
a blowpipe directly, but were blown (with 
or without a hand mold) from tubing made 



21 



previously and heated locally in some sort 
of torch flame, much in the same manner of 
working as that of the modern laboratory or 
carnival glassworker. 

There is evidence that by the end of the 1st 
century A.D. mold-blown wares were being 
made as far away as southern France. In 
succeeding centuries mold-blown wares de- 
clined in refinement, but spread in popular- 
ity. Among the most notable of these later 
mold-blown types are the rare vessels with 
Jewish or Christian patterned symbols of 
the 4th and 5th centuries and the barrel- 
shaped wine bottles of northern France. 

Alexandria seems to have adopted glass- 
blowing later than other centers, possibly 
owing to its preeminence as a source of 
cold-worked polychrome vessels. Some par- 
ticularly heavy blown pieces with lathe-cut 
bands or figural wheel-engraving may be 
products of Alexandrian workshops which 
found that forming a basic shape or "blank" 
to be cut later was more easily done by 
blowing a thick walled vessel than by cast- 
ing or mold-pressing. It is also to Alexan- 
dria that one must probably look for the 
origins of cameo cutting, although there is 
good evidence that this technique was also 
employed in Italy at an early date. Cameo 
glass is among the rarest types of ancient 
blown glass, doubtless because of its diffi- 
culty of manufacture wherein two layers 
of contrasting color are blown together, the 
outer layer being selectively ground away 
and modelled to create a relief in one color 
with a contrasting color in the background. 
The many Wedgwood copies of the famous 
Portland Vase have made the approximate 
visual appearance of these wares quite 
familiar. 

The technique of wheel-engraving probably 
spread from Alexandria through Italy to 
the Rhineland, where a series of beakers of 
4th century date culminate in the large 
Worringen Beaker with allegorical scenes. 



The idea of hot-tooling applied ornaments 
to blown glass developed rather slowly, 
being confined at first to modest frills on 
handles and beads or pendants in the form 
of human heads or animals, while develop- 
ments of the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D. led 
to elaborately tooled handles, distortion of 
blown forms with tongs and pincers, as well 
as trails "dribbled" abstractly on the sur- 
face and often tooled in ridges in a manner 
called "snake thread." Towards the 4th cen- 
tury the glassworkers became even more 
daring technically — although perhaps less 
free in design — by creating tiers of tall 
loops for handles and geometric lacings 
that stood away from and sometimes vir- 
tually obscured the simple blown forms 
they adorned. 

With the gradual breakdown of the Roman 
Empire, the broad development of glass was 
arrested in a manner not unlike that of the 
"Dark Ages" of the 12th to 9th centuries 
B.C. Glass was still produced, but generally 
of less elegance of form and purity of color. 
Exceptions to this decline are the heavy 
clear glass cups and bottles cut in hexagonal 
facets or relief bosses from the Empire of 
the Sasanians in Iran and Mesopotamia. The 
changes in political power, in trade, and in 
social life during the waning centuries of 
the Antique World were to result in new 
centers and new styles of glassmaking. 




TRAGIC MASK. Opaque white on translucent 
blue ground cut in cameo technique. Alexandria 
or Italy (Rome?), 1st century A.D. 3 inches long. 
Ex-coll: C. C. Coleman, Rome. 23.1571. 



22 




^Maimmmgan^. 



FUSED MOSAIC INLAYS. Alexandria or Italy, 
1st century B.C. — 1st century A.D. Rosette: red on 
yellow ground. Diameter 1%6 inches. 23.300. 
Bullseye: red, white and two tones of blue. 



Diameter 2 : ;4c inches. 23.253. 




RIBBED BOWL. Lathe-cut amber glass. 
Alexandria, 1st century A.D. Diameter 7Vig inches. 
23.674. 







CORE-FUSED PENDANTS. Polychrome opaque 
glass. Eastern Mediterranean, probably Syria or 
Egypt, 6th century B.C.-2nd century A.D. (left to 
right) ]% 6 , 2 Vie, 7 /h, % inches. 23.354. 



23 



^fe*,:v 




MOLD-BLOWN VESSELS (left to right) 
Transparent glass. Syria, 1st century A.D. Pyxis 
with cover. Amber glass with palmette design. 
3 a /4 inches high. 67.5. Beaker. Green glass inscribed 
in Greek, "Neikais made me. Let the buyer 
remember." 3% inches high. 30.5. Bowl. Amber glass 
inscribed in Greek, "Rejoice that you have come." 
Diameter 3V> inches. 67.6. 




HEAD FLASK. Mold-blown glass weathered silver. 
Eastern Mediterranean (Syria?), lst-2nd century 
A.D. 4Y 2 inches high. 67.8. 



24 




BOWL. Transparent glass diamond-point and 
wheel-engraved. The detail is enlarged about three 
times. Probably Italy, late 1st century A.D. 
Diameter 3V> inches. 51.311. 




25 



BOTTLE. Transparent weathered green blown 
glass with snake thread decoration. Syria (Horns), 
2nd-3rd century A.D. 3% inches high. 51.374. 








KRATER. Transparent green blown glass with 
engraved bands. Syria, 1st century A.D. 6}s inches 
high. 23.2404. 



26 



GOLD GLASS PLAQUE. Gold leaf and red fused 
between two layers of transparent pale green 
glass. Latin-Greek inscription may mean: "Victory 
by conquering." Italy (Rome?), 4th century A.D. 
Maximum diameter 2Vz inches. 67.11. 



7/to§ 





/ 




WINE BOTTLE. Mold-blown transparent 
blue-green glass with "Frontiniana" imperfectly 
molded on bottom. Northeastern France, 3rd-4th 
century A.D. 8% inches high. Ex-coll: Evans, 
England: 48.220. 



27 



THE WORRINGEN BEAKER. Transparent pale 
green, blown lathe-turned and wheel-engraved 
with mythological scene. Found at Worringen, near 
Cologne, Germany, 3rd century A.D. 8 inches 
high. 30.6. 



28 



GOLD-GLASS PLAQUE. Gold leaf fused between 
two layers of transparent pale green glass. Christ 
with SS. Peter and Paul. Latin inscription reads: 
"The Lord gives the law." Italy (Rome?), 4th 
century AD. Largest dimension 4% inches. 67.12. 



i 





mi 

mi 









29 




BALSAMARIUM (unguent flask). Olive-green 
transparent blown glass with hot applied threads. 
Syria, 3rd-4th century A.D. 9 :, 4 inches high. 23.1302. 



30 



-^r 



FRAGMENT OF BOWL. Pale green transparent 
lathe- and wheel-cut glass. Eastern Mediterranean 
(Alexandria?), 3rd-4th century A.D. Arc of rim 
8y 2 inches. 23.1888. 



BLOWN VESSELS. Transparent glass. Syria, 
2nd-6th century A.D. (left to right) Jar. Purple 
streaks and handles. 2% inches high. 23.918. 
Footed bottle. Dark blue glass. 7 l: Yjr, inches high. 
23.644. Footed beaker. Pale green with tooled 
threads. 5-% inches high. 23.1328. Ewer. Pale green 
with applied threads. 3%g inches high. 08.74. Footed 
Ewer. Dark blue with coiled foot and tooled handle. 
8"/ie inches high. 23.736. 




31 





MOLD-BLOWN VESSELS, (left to right) 
Transparent glass. Syria, 4th-5th century A.D. 
Ewer. Pale amber body with Christian symbols 
and olive-green handle. 7% inches high. 48.13. Jar. 
Dark amber glass with Jewish symbols. 3%6 
inches high. 23.1359. 



32 



•- i HSKffS; 




BEAKER. Pale green, facet-cut. Iran ( Sasanian) , 
4th century A.D. Diameter 3%e inches. 62.26. 



GOLD-GLASS PLAQUE. Gold leaf and black on 
deep amber ground with transparent colorless 
overlay. Probably Syria (Aleppo?), 9th-12th 
century A.D. 3% by 3~/iq inches. 59.127 (one of five). 





BOTTLE. Colorless, transparent, massive cut. Iran 
(post-Sasanian) , 7th-8th century A.D. 5!-%o inches 
high. 67.7. 




33 



*w, ■■.;-.;, ..;■. . : - 





MOSQUE LAMP. Transparent grey glass with 
enamel decoration. Inscribed in Arabic: "This is one 
of the objects made for the son of His High 
Excellency, our honored and well-served Lord 
Nasir al-Din Muhammad, son of His late High 
Excellency Arghun, the Dawadar of al-Malik 
al-Nasir. May Allah the Exalted cover them with 
His mercy." Syria or Egypt, after 1331. 10% inches 
high. Ex-coll: Eumorfopoulos, London. 40.118. 



ISLAMIC GLASS 

6th century A.D. — 18th century A.D. 



After the death of Mohammed in 632 A.D., 
Islam spread rapidly and by 750 had girdled 
the Mediterranean from the Pyrenees to 
Antioch, as well as penetrating as far east as 
the Indus River. In a sense, Islam had re- 
placed the Roman Empire as the unifying 
force in Mediterranean and Near Eastern 
civilization. Because of their rapid expan- 
sion into already long civilized areas, the 
nomadic early Moslems readily assimilated 
the arts and comforts of the Byzantine and 
Sasanian peoples they conquered and con- 
verted. Early Islamic glass, therefore, is but 
a continuation of the late Antique tradition. 
Gradually, however, the Arabic love of 
nature — as expressed in Mohammed's po- 
etic concepts of creation in the Koran — 
asserted itself in a wealth of floral ornament 
and animal forms. 

Islamic glass craftsmen exploited their 
skills in applying pinched or pressed dec- 
orative elements to blown shapes and 
excelled in making vessels that were rein- 
flated after being blown in molds. The wheel- 
engraved and relief-cut wares of Iran and 
Egypt, while developed from Sasanian or 
Alexandrian techniques, acquired a free- 
dom of design which contrasts strongly with 
the geometric regularity of their prototypes, 
and tend to resemble Arabic calligraphy. 
There are also types which, although blown, 
revive the spirited combed trails of pre- 
Christian sand-core vessels. A wide range 
of animal shapes, both solid and blown is 
derived from Syrian types. Appropriate to 
the life of a desert people are the so-called 
"Dromedary Flasks" in the shape of quad- 
rupeds bearing elaborately festooned vases 
on their backs, characteristic examples of 
this whimsical class of wares. 

Certainly the greatest Islamic contribution 
to the history of glass lies in the enamelled 
wares of the 13th and 14th centuries. Mos- 



35 



lem glassworkers developed polychrome 
enamelling and gilding on large bowls, 
mosque lamps, and bottles to a perfection 
never before reached. The ability of Islamic 
glassworkers to decorate their wares was 
equalled by their ability to blow them. Us- 
ing an impure greenish or greyish glass, 
they blew large monumental shapes of a 
highly sophisticated symmetry, admirably 
suited to the ornament they were to receive. 
Mosque lamps with elegantly applied loops 
for suspension were usually the gifts to 
particular mosques from important nobles. 
Most are inscribed in enamel with verses 
from the Koran or dedicatory statements of 
the donor. Perfume or rosewater sprinklers, 
sherbet cups, and large stemmed bowls, 
elaborately enamelled, attest the luxury of 
the courts of the Moslem princes for whom 
they were made. The enamelled or gilded 



inscriptions and interlaces of Islamic enam- 
elled vessels show a superior sense of design 
and technical mastery bringing to mind the 
jewel-like splendor of the title pages and 
decorative borders of Islamic manuscripts. 

The debt of the Italian Renaissance to Islam 
in science and literature is well known. Less 
famous is the role Islamic glass played in 
the great Venetian glass industry of the 15th 
and 16th centuries. It was Islamic enamelled 
glass that provided the inspiration for 
Venetian enamelled wares and Venetian 
latticinio glass may well have been devel- 
oped from Islamic wares with opaque white 
trailed decoration. It is even possible that 
Saracen workmen made glass in Venice. By 
a curious twist of history, when the Islamic 
industry declined in the 17th century, it was 
Venetian craftsmen travelling to Shiraz in 
Iran, who revived it. 



THREE "DROMEDARY FLASKS." Transparent 
blue-green, olive-green and dark amber glass. 
Near East (Syria?), 6th-8th century, (left to right) 
3!% 6 inches high. 23.2048. 5 inches high. 23.2044. 
4V 16 inches high. 23.2047. 




""^mmuit-' 




JAR. Heavy amber glass with tooled trail and 
mold-pressed prunts with birds. Probably Syria, 
7th-10th century. 3 ] ^> inches high. 23.2015. 



BOTTLE. Mold.-blown dark blue glass. Iran 
fpost-Sasanian), 9th-10th century. 9% inches high. 
62.27. 




37 



BOTTLE. Heavy, colorless facet-cut glass. Iran, 
8th-10th century. 5% inches high. 47.6. 





BOTTLE. Heavy, colorless facet- and wheel-cut 
glass. Iran, 9th-10th century. 5~/g inches high. 47.5. 




BOTTLE. Mold-blown, transparent amber. Iran 
(Gurgan?), llth-12th century. 5 1 /) inches high. Gift 
of Tel Aviv Museum, Israel. 50.215. 




38 



BEAKER. Transparent pale green with tooled 
blue-green ribs. Syria (?), about 13th century. 
5 inches high. 23.2127. 




PERFUME SPRINKLER. Transparent pale green 
with enamels. Syria, 13th century. 7% inches 
high. 66.115. 




\ 





THE TOLEDO FLAGON. Transparent pale 
olive-green with enamels and gilding. Inscribed in 
Arabic: "One of what was made by the order of 
the Moulowi High Resident to the Emir. May 
Prosperity attend our Master, the Sultayi." Syria 
(Damascus?), about 1300. 13% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Monastery of Guadalupe (?); Count of Valencia 
de Don Juan; Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan. 
27.317. 



%>; ^y N 4 v 1 - V 



? 35C 



STEMMED BOWL. Pale amber with tooled knop 
and enamels. Syria, about 1340. 12"% inches high. 
Ex-coll: Zschille, Berlin; Sarre, Berlin. 54.27. 




40 




MOSQUE LAMP. Transparent pale amber with 
enamels and gilding. Inscribed on neck from 24th 
chapter of Koran; on body: "By order of His 
Excellency, the Noblest, the High, the Liegeman, 
the Master, as-Saifi, Sheikhu the Victorious." Syria 
early 14th century. 13 l: _i inches high. Ex-coll: 
Martin, Stockholm. 33.320. 








.:'■" 




PERFUME SPRINKLER. Mold-blown and tooled 
transparent blue. Iran (Shiraz), 18th century. 
14 :, /\? ) inches high. 53.108. 



41 




GOBLET. Dark blue and clear glass with enamels 
and gilding showing an allegorical procession, 
■probably the Triumph of Fame. Attributed to 
Angelo Beroviero, Venice, about 1475. 7% inches 
high (including restored foot). Ex-coll: 
Eumorfopoulos, London. 40.119. 



EUROPEAN GLASS 



Constantine the Great's transfer in the year 
330 of the Imperial Roman capital from 
Rome to Byzantium marked the beginning of 
the end of Imperial unity which culminated 
in the sack of Rome by Attila the Hun in 
411. Byzantine glass, in the sense of wares 
stylistically inspired by the canons of By- 
zantine art, does not seem to have existed. 
Apparently, Byzantium preferred ceramics 
or was content to import glass from its 
eastern provinces. 

In the West, the break-up of the Roman 
Empire had different effects on the glass in- 
dustry. The decline of commerce led to a 
provincial type of production, dependent 
upon local sources of materials. Simple, con- 
ical beakers or hemispherical bowls predom- 
inate from the 5th to the 8th century. The 
more notable have trailed threads and a few 
remarkable examples have rows of fantastic 
elongated applied blobs or "prunts" recall- 
ing Viking art in their exuberance. 

Between the 9th and 14th centuries, glass 
vessels seem to have been very scarce. Ow- 
ing to impurities — mainly iron — the glass 
was usually a bluish or greenish transparent 
gray. Often ribbed or decorated with prunts, 
the vessels are reminiscent of Syrian prod- 
ucts of the 10th to 12th centuries. This type 
of glass is called Waldglas (forest glass) be- 
cause of the location of glass furnaces near 
stands of trees where fuel supplies were 
readily available. Venice, however, with its 
rich trade with the East had a glass industry 
of such magnitude that in 1291 all glass fac- 
tories were ordered moved to the nearby 
island of Murano (where they remain to this 
day) to protect the city from fire hazards. 

The great Medieval achievement in glass 
was not in vessels, but in its application to 
architecture. The stained glass windows of 
the Gothic cathedral imparted to the grey 
stone of its piers and vaulting a blaze of 
jewel-like color which had no parallel. 



43 




STAINED GLASS LANCET. Scenes of the Last 
Judgment. France (lie de France, Paris?), mid-13th 
century. 80}'+ inches high. Ex-coll: Baron de 
Lucay; Schniewind. 45.23. 



Stained glass panel. Flanders (?). 15th century. 
41 by 23 inches. Ex-coll: Lord Stafford, Costessey 
Hall, Norfolk. 26.6. 



r^e3ntj| 


1 


||rV | i\ "' *w#sSSft 






k \ 


/^**\>5t^^ 


"TlC^ 




%*jiki 


11 






rVxVL^^^SIS^ryT 7 



44 




The Reniassance 

1450—1600 



In the 15th century, the revival of classical 
learning inspired a flowering of art, litera- 
ture, and science in Italy, while the expul- 
sion of the Moors from Spain made the 
Western Mediterranean safe for commerce 
and the growth of industry. Venice, already 
a flourishing glass center, assumed a pre- 
eminence that made her wares famous 
throughout Europe. Under the influence of 
Islamic glass, Venetian glassworkers devel- 
oped enamelled and gilded decoration which 
was painted on deep blue, clear, and, occa- 
sionally, opaque white vessels. Angelo Bero- 
viero, one of a noted glassmaking dynasty, 
is reputed to have produced in his workshop 
in the late 15th century a series of brilliantly 
enamelled pieces with pictorial subjects of 
allegorical or religious nature. 

In northern Europe, change came about 
more slowly than in Italy. From late Medi- 
eval shapes there developed several distinct 
forms such as the Humpen, a tall cylindrical 
beaker, and the Roemer, a goblet with a 
thick, hollow stem. These shapes were usu- 
ally decorated with prunts that were some- 
times impressed with a "raspberry" pattern. 
The simple, low prunts on some examples 
produce intriguing random optical effects, 
while the pressed ones gather light to create 
small brilliant accents on the sober Waldglas 
colors. While superficially rustic in charac- 
ter, these vessels reveal a sensitivity to the 
peculiar properties of the limpidly colored 
glass from which they were fashioned. Ve- 
netian enamelled wares were popular in the 
North and, in Germany, gave rise to a vogue 
for broadly, brightly colored Humpen of 
simple form derived from Waldglas types, 
the plane surfaces of which were ideally 
suited for painting with allegories of the 
Holy Roman Empire, its Electors, family 
histories, and trade or guild insignia. These 
vessels formed a bridge between the north- 



45 



ern Waldglas tradition and that of southern 
enamelling. 

The real fame of Venetian glass, however, 
sprang from cristallo, a transparent, color- 
less soda-lime glass of great ductility, re- 
minding one of the purest rock crystal in 
its clarity. In the early 16th century, cris- 
tallo was used in substantial, mold-blown or 
tooled forms of massive elegance, often with 
discreetly applied dot patterns of enamelling 
and gilding. Later in the century cristallo 
was blown in lighter shapes and combined 
with fine threads of opaque white lattimo or 
milk glass to produce a spectacular type 
called latticinio. The latticinio type was fur- 
ther refined by trapping minute bubbles in 
the clear matrix of the white lattice pattern 
to produce lace glass. Another type called 
ice glass was produced by chilling the outer 
surface of a heavy bubble in water and then 
further inflating it, causing the surface to 



crack in an irregular pattern. The demand 
for these wares spread across Europe rap- 
idly and they were imitated widely. The 
early 16th century copies in France, South 
Germany and the Low Countries were prob- 
ably made by local workers untrained in Ve- 
netian methods and using their traditionally 
impure tinted glass formulas. In spite of se- 
vere prohibitions (including the death pen- 
alty) , Venetian glassworkers were induced 
to leave their native city to set up Venetian 
style glasshouses in France and the Low 
Countries. In 1575 England's Queen Eliza- 
beth I granted the Venetian Giacomo Ver- 
zelini, a 21-year right to make glass in the 
Venetian style and to train British glass- 
workers in its manufacture, thus bringing 
the beginnings of a modern glass industry 
to England. Soon the glassworkers of North- 
ern Europe were rivalling the Venetians in 
elegance of shape and clarity of material. 



FOOTED BOWL. Clear with trailed and pinched 
ribs, dark blue trail on foot, enamels and gilding. 
Venice, about 1500. Diameter HYi inches. 58.17. 




46 




TAZZA (footed dish). Clear, mold-blown with 
enamels and gilding bearing the arms of Louis XII 
of France and his Queen, Anne of Brittany. 
Venice, 1499-1514. Diameter 9% inches. Ex-coll: 
Spitzer, Paris. 32.1. 



PILGRIM FLASK. Clear with enamels and gilding. 
Venice, 16th century. 13% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Walker, England. 48.225. 




* 



47 



JUG. Lattimo glass with enamels of mythological 
subjects. Venice, 16th century. 7 15 /\e inches high. 
Ex-coll: von Lanna, Prague; Heugel, Paris. 69.287. 




<0s i * i i^> 




COVERED GOBLET. Clear with lattimo, latticinio, 
gilding, mold-blown foot and stem, and tooled 
finial. Venice, 16th century. 12\'$ inches high. 
Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg. 13.439. 



48 




LACE GLASS. Venice, late 16th-early 17th century, 
(left to right) Goblet. 7Yg inches high. Ex-coll: 
Campe, Hamburg. 13.414. Plate. Diameter 10% 
inches. 53.112. Tazza. Diameter 6Vi inches. Ex-coll: 
Campe, Hamburg. 13.415. 




NORTH EUROPEAN GLASS. Free blown, (left to 
right) Passglas (drinking glass). Clear with tooled 
trails for measuring shares. Germany , 16th century. 
13% inches high. Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg. 
13.482. Stangenglas (beaker). Green glass with 
applied trails, foot, and prunts. Germany or 
Holland, about 1520 (enamelled arms and diamond 
point inscription added in 1620). 9'/i inches high. 
53.122. 










49 





COVERED VASE. Pale brown, partly mold-blown 
with enamels and gilding. Venetian style, probably 
France, first half of 16th century. liy± inches high. 
Ex-coll: Campe, Hambxirg. 13.441. 



BEAKER. Grey crackle glass (ice glass), with 
applied pressed masks, pearling, and gilding. 
Venetian style, Flanders, about 1600. 8% inches 
high. Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg. 13.423. 



^SF^tHfe rr ff |S~^ 



- i!»r-» 



■V'-yr-wt ;.■;;•■;' 





GOBLET. Pale brown with enamels and gilding. 
Latin inscription on rim reads: "Lord, open thou 
our lips and our mouths shall show forth Thy 
praise." French inscription with heart rebus 
between heads of man and woman reads: "Given to 
you by a good heart." Probably made on the 
occasion of a marriage. France, about 1560. 6% 
inches high. Ex-coll: Walker, England. 48.222. 



GOBLET. Pale green witth lattimo, lace glass, 
enamels, and gilding. The subject is the sacrifice of 
Isaac. Reverse bears monogram HLX in blue 
shield. Bohemia, about 1600. 7~/$ inches high. 
Ex-coll: Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.12. 



50 





COVERED VASE. Pale brown with unfired lacquer 
and gold (cold enamel) coat of arms. Venetian 
style, Germany (Nuremberg), 1600-1620. 13Y2 
inches high. Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg. 13.450. 




^W^"~*~ Kv^-f^^a 




JUG. Dark blue with enamels and gilding. 
Unmarked parcel-gilt silver cover. Bohemia, about 
1600. 7% inches high overall. 53.119. 



51 




MOUNTED PILGRIM FLASK. Agate glass. 
Venice, about 1600. Enamelled, silver gilt mounts. 
France, early 17th century. 12}{> inches high. 47.56. 



VASE MOUNTED AS EWER. Latticinio. Venice, 
about 1600. Jewelled, enamelled, and silver gilt 
mounts by Heinrich Straub, Nuremberg (active 
1608-1635). U ll Ae inches high. Ex-coll: 
Goldschmidt-Rothschild, Frankfurt. 60.36. 




52 



STAINED GLASS ROUNDEL. Monochrome 
enamel with touches of yellow. The Prodigal Son 
gambling with courtesans. Holland, about 1520. 
Designed by Peter Cornelisz. (about 1490-after 
1532). Diameter 10% inches. Ex-coll: von Pannwitz, 
Hartekamp. Gijt of Rosenberg and Stiebel, Inc. 
57.49. 




CRIST ALLO GLASS. Venice or Venetian style, 
early 17th century, (left to right) Goblet. 4^ 
inches high. 13.429. Goblet. 7% inches high. 13.427. 
Tazza. 4%, inches high. 13.433. Goblet. 7% inches 
high. 53.109. Goblet. 7 inches high. 13.426. Sweet- 
meat dish. 6V± inches high. 13.432. Goblet. 5% 
inches high. 13.428. Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg 
(except for 53.109). 




53 




BAROQUE DRINKING GLASSES (left to right) 
Fliigelglas ("wing" goblet). Clear glass with red, 
white, and blue tooled twist stem. Diamond-point 
engraved with hunting scene. Holland, late 17th 
century. ll^Yic, inches high. Ex-coll: le Roy; 
Franchomme, Brussels. 66.117. Roemer. Blue-green 
glass with spiny prunts, the bowl engraved with 
grapevine. Holland, 17th century. 4% inches high. 
53.30. Flute Glass. Clear glass diamond-point 
engraved with lion, motto in Dutch of the United 
Provinces: "Strength in Unity," and orange tree 
stump putting forth new shoot (probably 
emblematic of birth of Prince William III of Orange 
in 1650). Holland, about 1665. 17'% inches high. 
58.22. Roemer. Green glass with raspberry prunts, 
wheel-engraved Latin inscription reads "Always 
the same." Signed and dated 1676 by Willem van 
Heemskerk of Leyden. Holland or Germany, about 
1676. 7% inches high. 53.89. Roemer. Green glass 
with raspberry prunts, wheel-engraved with dwarf 
musicians after etchings by Jacques Callot, 
grapevines, and fantastic fish. Signed and dated 
1661 by the Dutch engraver Carel Du Quesne. 
Germany, about 1660. liy 2 inches high. 53.28. 



The Baroque Era 

1600—1730 



The early 17th century saw the gradual evo- 
lution of the style called Baroque. In its 
development, the stable forms of the Renais- 
sance, inspired by classical antiquity, tended 
to lose their structural function and became 
elements in an expressive artistic vocabu- 
lary of dramatic power. Contrasts of light 
and dark, tall and squat, simple and elab- 
orate, became the grammar of the style. Ex- 
aggeration for effect supplanted the simpler 
declaration of the Renaissance. 

As the century progressed, the Baroque 
spirit was felt by glass designers all over 
Europe. In South Germany, some Humpen 
became taller and more slender in propor- 
tion, sometimes flared, and were often fitted 
with lids surmounted by elaborate baluster- 
shaped finials, while in the Low Countries 
the Roemer became preeminent as a presen- 
tation piece suitable for engraving with ele- 
gant curvilinear calligraphy or figural 
subjects. From the 17th century Roemers 
with tall narrow stems and globular bowls 
predominate, although the earlier heavier 
flaring forms also continued. 

The glassworkers of the Low Countries 
were especially intrigued by Venetian cris- 
tallo and produced elegant, almost weight- 
less flute glasses and goblets of mannered 
profile virtually indistinguishable from Ve- 
netian prototypes. Ice glass beakers of high 
quality with molded prunts were also made 
in Flanders. Although France and Spain 
continued to produce Venetian style glass 
until the 18th century, it found greatest fa- 
vor in the North. 

By the early 17th century, the Venetian 
"monopoly" on its wares had so diminished 
that in 1612 in Florence, Antonio Neri pub- 
lished his famous work, L' 'Arte Vetrario. Be- 
fore the century closed, enlarged editions of 



55 



this work had been published in England, 
Holland, and Germany. French and Span- 
ish editions did not appear until after 1750. 
These publications doubtless reflected the 
great demand for technological works. It is 
no accident that they were first published 
in countries which dominated the European 
glass industry. 

Towards the middle of the 17th century, 
German enamel painters developed a trans- 
lucent technique of painting on glass vessels 
derived from domestic stained glass window 
roundels. The earliest of the Hausmaler 
(home painter) or free-lance artists who 
painted glass and ceramics in a personal, 
rather than folk style, was a South German, 
Johann Schaper. His delicate figures, coats 
of arms, and panoramic landscapes were 
painted chiefly in black, highlighted by sub- 
tle tints of color. Abraham Helmhack, work- 
ing in a broader style, chiefly painted in 
black, intricately mingling figures, foliage, 
and scrollwork. 

The late 17th and early 18th centuries com- 
prised the great Baroque age. The Peace of 
Westphalia, concluded in 1648, encouraged 
a sense of security, and during the subse- 
quent 100 years European science, scholar- 
ship, art and industry made some of their 
greatest strides. In glass, security and con- 
fidence took shape in heavier, more monu- 
mentally sculptural forms, with a use of 
baluster stems which varied in basic profile 
from one center to another. These massive 
forms were often decorated with engravings 
of exquisite detail. The demand for such 
vessels necessitated basic changes in glass 
technology and the scientific spirit of the 
age met the challenge. 

Towards the end of the 17th century two 
developments, one probably in Bohemia, 
the other in England, presented innovations 
which enabled the new taste to terminate 
effectively the dominance of Waldglas and 



Venetian style wares. The formulation of a 
good potash glass in Bohemia and stable 
lead glass in England gave European glass 
decorators an engraving medium they had 
previously lacked. German glassmakers, us- 
ing local materials, developed a glass with- 
out soda, using instead, potash mixed with 
a high proportion of lime. This glass was 
equal in clarity to cristallo. This heavy, hard 
glass was first worked in baroque forms and 
decorated with trailed and pinched deco- 
ration, but glass cutters soon realized that it 
was admirably suited to wheel-engraving, 
an ancient technique which had been ap- 
plied to rock crystal in Italy and Germany 
since the 16th century. 

Prior to the introduction of potash glass, the 
most distinguished early engraving had 
been done on thin Venetian type glass at 
Nuremberg by members of the Schwan- 
hardt family; G. F. Killinger was an out- 
standing later member of this school. 
Shortly after its appearance in Bohemia, 
potash glass was made at Potsdam and en- 
graved in Berlin in a studio established in 
1687 under the patronage of the Elector of 
Brandenburg. Gottfried Spiller and his 
pupil , Heinrich Jager , are among the 
chief artists associated with this center, 
which was active through the 18th century. 
Many of these noted engravers are repre- 
sented by work in the Museum's collections. 

The great center of German engraving was 
in Bohemia and Silesia on either side of 
Riesengebirge, near good supplies of glass 
and water power. At first Bohemia excelled 
in the art of engraving, but as the 18th cen- 
tury advanced Silesia assumed the lead. The 
names of few Silesian engravers are known. 
An exception is C. G. Schneider, who 
worked at the resort of Warmbrunn. 

A remarkable and famous Bohemian tech- 
nique, recalling an ancient Alexandrian 
practice, involving grinding two tumblers 



56 



so that they fit precisely one inside the 
other, sandwiching between them designs 
engraved on gold or silver leaf. Such 
zwischengold and zwischensilber glasses are 
usually cut in broad vertical facets on the 
outside and date to about 1730. Because of 
the complexity of execution, many of them 
are commemorative pieces. 

Another German innovation was the form- 
ulation of a relatively inexpensive copper- 
ruby glass. Andreas Cassius of Hamburg 
and Johan Kunckel, a Bohemian chemist 
working at Potsdam for the Elector of 
Brandenburg, were primarily responsible. 
It is interesting to note that many tech- 
nological improvements in glass which oc- 
curred close to the end of the 17th century 
were achieved under the patronage of and 
in glasshouses owned by the German nobil- 
ity. A parallel can be found in the develop- 
ment of German porcelain at Meissen a 
generation later, indicating the interest of 
the baroque nobility in science and industry. 

An offshoot of the German glass industry 
was that of Russia, which was dominated 
by wares made solely for court use in Bo- 
hemian style from the time of Peter the 
Great to that of Catherine the Great, both 
of whom had close ties with Germany. 

The second major development of the end 
of the 17th century was the perfection of a 
good lead glass in England. Prior to 1675, 
England had been dependent on Venetian 
style glass made by followers of Verzelini 
such as Sir Robert Mansell, who was really 
an industrialist rather than a craftsman or 
technologist. British tables were usually 
decorated with glass made to British pat- 
terns in Venice. 

In 1673, George Ravenscroft, a businessman 
with extensive contacts in Venice and a 
lively concern for chemistry, began experi- 
menting with native raw materials to free 



the English market from foreign domination 
in ingredients and production. The Glass 
Sellers' Company of London was also 
working along the same lines and, in the 
following year, recognizing the progress 
Ravenscroft was making, reached a cooper- 
ative agreement with him, wherein Ravens- 
croft conducted research while the company 
provided facilities, workmen, and financial 
backing. 

Early in his research Ravenscroft had diffi- 
culty in fusing the native crushed flint he 
was using as a silica source. He solved this 
problem by adding more potash, only to en- 
counter the same difficulty as did the chem- 
ists first working with potash glass in 
Germany. The glass would not remain clear 
after blowing, but soon after annealing (con- 
trolled cooling to reduce stresses) devel- 
oped a fine, lacy network of cracks called 
"crizzling." Crizzling is not simply a visual 
disfigurement, but is a sign of instability 
inherent in the formula which produces a 
glass that decomposes. In 1675 Ravenscroft 
formulated a workable lead glass. Through 
a substitution of sufficient lead oxide for part 
of the potash he produced a glass that was 
not only stable, but was soft enough to cut 
readily without chipping, and of a refractive 
brilliance never before achieved. In 1677, the 
Glass Sellers' Company adopted a raven's 
head seal to identify wares produced to its 
designs with Ravenscroft's formula. So suc- 
cessful was the introduction of lead glass 
that it became a standard of desirable glass 
quality and the term "crystal" came to mean 
lead glass rather than Venetian cristallo. 

Although early English lead glass reflects 
Venetian prototypes in the continued use of 
trailed and pinched decoration, the material 
suggested heavier forms more appropriate 
to it. Use of the new type of glass soon 
spread and the late Baroque period owed 
much to the contribution of the English 



57 



spirit of invention. That the qualities of the 
new English glass were recognized abroad 
at an early date is shown by the fact that 
the noted German engraver, Gottfried 
Spiller, decorated vessels of English 
manufacture. 

While Germany and England were making 
great strides, Holland with its new commer- 
cial and colonial prosperity not only pro- 
duced painters such as Rembrandt and 
Vermeer, but also demanded glass in the 
new heavy manner, liberally engraved. The 
Waldglas and Venetian style wares had 
faded into obscurity by the end of the 17th 
century. Since the 16th century, the Dutch 
had had a strong tradition of engraving glass 
with a diamond point. Many of the Dutch 
diamond engravers signed their work; one of 
the most famous was Willem van Heemskerk 
of Leiden who excelled in elegant calli- 
graphic designs on Roemers. The Dutch, 
who unfortunately failed to produce a good 
potash or lead glass, imported many vessels 
from Germany (sometimes engraved for the 
Dutch market) and later from England. In 
the early 18th century, however, Dutch en- 
gravers began to employ wheel-engraving 
which yields more dramatic effects in the 
play of light than diamond-point work. They 
soon surpassed the high standards of Ger- 
man engravers and achieved effects of re- 
markable virtuosity in the control of small, 
whirring abrasive wheels on inconveniently 
curved surfaces. A native Dutch technique 
invented by Frans Greenwood of Rotter- 
dam involved the use of the traditional dia- 
mond point. Called stipple engraving, it 
required meticulously tapping the surface 
of the glass with the point to produce pains- 
takingly thousands of tiny chips in the de- 
sired design on the surface which appear as 
highlights against the darker areas of un- 
touched glass. 

France, for all the fame of its ceramics in 
the Baroque Era, never achieved the same 



distinction in glass, although Bernard Perrot 
of Orleans experimented with colored and 
opaque glasses and seems to have been an 
innovator in casting and molding. Spain, 
too, lagged behind the rest of Europe, con- 
tinuing to produce wares of a debased Vene- 
tian type. By their adaption of Venetian 
forms to local shapes, however, and robust 
exuberance of tooled decoration, they are 
redeemed from dullness and possess a qual- 
ity of rustic humor. 

By the middle of the 18th century European 
glass had achieved an international style 
which, with regional variations, was de- 
pendent upon technologies and skill de- 
veloped by the Germans and the English. 
The supremacy of Venice, unquestioned in 
the Renaissance, was over. 




58 



FLUTE GLASS. Clear, diamond-point engraved 
with portrait and inscription reading: "God Bless 
King Charlis (sic) the second." Holland (for the 
English market), after 1680. 15"/% inches high. 
Ex-coll: van der Poll, Noordwijkerhout. 66.116. 

HUMPEN. Green with enamels and gilding. 
Allegory of the Peace of Westphalia with the Holy 
Roman Emperor, King of France, and Queen of 
Sweden. Inscribed with laudatory poem. Germany 
(Franconia, probably Kreussen) , 1651. W 1 /^ inches 
high. Ex-coll: Ducal Castle, Dessau; Neuburg, 
Leitmeritz. 50.29. 





59 




COVERED BEAKER ON BUN FEET. Clear with 
black enamel (schwarzlot). View of a city 
(Nuremberg?) and hunting scene on cover. 
Germany (Nuremberg), about 1665. 7^4 inches 
high. Ex-coll: Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.36. 



BEAKER ON BUN FEET. Clear with transparent 
enamels of figures and ruins in a landscape, signed 
by Johann Schaper of Nuremberg (1621-1670). 
Germany (Nuremberg), about 1665. 3% inches 
high. Ex-coll: von Forstner, Halle; Rosenberg; 
Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.35. 





GOBLET. Clear, wheel-engraved in style of Georg 
Schwanhart, the Younger (died 1676) with ruins 
and figures in a landscape. Germany (Nuremberg), 
about 1675. lO^i inches high. Ex-coll: Campe, 
Hamburg. 13.489. 



60 



THE SAVOY VASE. Crizzled blue with trailed and 
pinched decoration. Attributed to George 
Ravenscrojt's glasshouse. England (London), about 
1675. 8'Yig inches high. Ex-coll: Henry Brown, 
England. 47.6. 




POSSET POT. (Posset was a mixture of wine or 
ale with milk.) Clear with molded ribs. Made at the 
glasshouse of George Ravenscroft (1618-1681). 
Raven's head, seal on spout. England (London), 
a.bout 1677. 3% inches high. Ex-coll: Horridge, 
Cardington, Shropshire. 60.3. 




61 




BOWL. Clear with trailed and pinched decoration. 
England (London), about 1680. Diameter 13 inches. 
50.276. 



STOPPERED EWER. Clear with trailed aiid 
pinched decoration. Attributed to George Ravens- 
croft's glasshouse. England (London), about 1680. 
11% inches high. 48.223. 



GOBLET. Clear with gadrooned bowl and 
raspberry prunts on closed stem. Possibly from the 
glasshouse of Hawley Bishopp, Ravenscroft's 
successor. England (London) , probably 1682-1690. 
12 inches high. 54.15. 



! r 




ife*fc>' } ,1 ' 





62 



CANTIR (water vessel). Pale green mold-blown 
with trails and tooled bird finial. Spain (Catalonia), 
18th century. 10% inches high. Ex-coll: Daime, 
Paris. 25.118. 




EWER. Clear mold-blown with trails and tooled 
flower finial. France (Orleans region), early 18th 
century. 9Yj inches high. Ex-coll: Daime, Paris. 
25.114. 




63 




JUG. Ruby glass with wheel-engraving and silver- 
gilt mounts bearing Augsburg mark. South 
Germany, late 17th century. 9 inches high. Ex-coll: 
Campe, Hamburg. 13.444. 



COVERED HUMPEN. Clear with black enamel 
(schwarzlot) by Abraham Hehnhack (1654-1724). 
One of the two coats-oj-arms is Schiller oj 
Nuremberg; an Old Testament scene on the other 
side, and vignettes on the cover illustrating the 
German couplet: "Let constant hope not sink." 
Germany (Nuremberg), dated 1681. 10 inches high 
Ex-coll: Campe, Hamburg. 13.454. 




64 











-^ 


Bly€~--.,t 








■lit 








^Hllanv%*v'* w '' 






>• 


■Ht-' 


,>■ 




... 


■B; H 






-w-_/ *& %W ^'< 










#*^- ss»L~ 


- / ,. 


^' *, 





BEAKEfJ. Clear with wheel- engraving of allegories 
of the Five Senses after engravings by Martin de 
Vos. Bohemia, late 17th century. 5% inches high. 
Ex-coll: Koula, Prague; Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 
50.26. 



m 



BEAKER. Clear with wheel-engraving attributed 
to Heinrich Jdger (active 1690-1720) . Germany 
(Potsdam?), about 1710. 6H inches high. Ex-coll: 
Ducal Castle, Dessau; Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.42. 




65 




ENGLISH ENGRAVED GOBLETS, (left to right) 
Clear lead glass with mold-blown stem, arms and 
inscription of Chatfield family, 1718. 7% inches 
high. Ex-coll: Francis, Drumgay, Guildford; 
Hughes, London. 63.13. Clear lead glass with 
mold-blown stem. "Kissing Spot" (the horse of 
Westphalia), forget-me-nots, and star with Latin 
inscription reading: "Liberty unbridled," a symbol 
of pro-Protestant sentiment in England, about 
1725. 7% inches high. Ex-coll: Mason; Clements; 
Hughes, London. 63.14. 



CANDLESTICKS. Clear lead glass. England, about 
1730. 8% inches high. Ex-coll: Berney; Hughes, 
London. 63.9-10. 



*fr — 

1 


| 
j 


I 

V, # 

m 
Mm 


w 








A | 


4 3 


~~*" _ 






-^"- 



66 



POKAL (covered goblet). Clear lead glass. 
England, early 18th century. Wheel-engraved with 
putti in a Bacchic procession by Gottfried Spiller 
(1683-1721), Germany (Berlin), about 1710. 
UH inches high. 53.107. 





POKAL. Clear, engraved in high and low relief 
with putti playing instruments. Germany 
(Potsdam), about 1720. 17% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Ducal Castle, Dessau; Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.43. 



67 




EWER AND BASIN. Facet-cut and painted with 
hawking and hunting scenes in black enamel 
(schwarzlot) . Probably by Ignaz Preissler 
(1676-about 1739). Germany (Silesia), about 1730. 
Ewer. 7 1 /* inches high. Basin. 8\i> by lV/s inches. 
Ex-coll: Schwartz, Stuttgart; Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 
50.45-46. 





BEAKER. Clear glass (with ruby glass insert in 
bottom), facet-cut and decorated in zwischengold 
technique with Hebrew inscription reading:" of 
Moses (Moishe) physician of the holy congregation 
Halberstadt." Probably made for a confraternity 
established for the care of the sick. Bohemia, about 
1730. 3% inches high. Ex-coll: Neuburg, 
Leitmeritz. 50.20. 



SWEETMEAT DISH. Facet-cut and wheel- 
engraved. Germany (Silesia), about 1730. 4Vi 
inches high. Ex-coll: Seligmann, Cologne: Neuburg, 
Leitmeritz. 50.52. 



68 




Rococo to Victorian 

1730—1850 



Towards the middle of the 18th century Eu- 
ropean taste began to tire of the fortissimo 
of the Baroque style and its massive sym- 
metries. Gradually, a lightness and airiness 
pervaded the style and exotic elements in 
the Chinese manner crept in, introducing 
the assymetrical, feathery forms which we 
call Rococo. Blown glass, being dependent 
upon rotary motion imparted to the blow- 
pipe, is of necessity symmetrical in shape 
and was not ideally suited to the unbalanced 
forms of the Rococo. The glassblower could 
at best only simplify and lighten his shapes, 
leaving the definitive expression of the new 
style to the engraver, cutter and enameller. 

The change in taste from monumental 
Baroque to gossamer Rococo, did not occur 
overnight throughout Europe. France, the 
adoptive parent of the Italian-born Rococo 
style, spread it to Germany and England. 
Although French glass did not come into its 
own until the emergence of Baccarat, Clichy 
and St- Louis wares in the 19th century, the 
impact of French style on German and Eng- 
lish glass should not be overlooked. 

In England by the middle of the 18th cen- 
tury, colored and opaque vessels began to 
appear with much of the interest centered 
at Bristol. This great English port was the 
point of import for cobalt oxide shipped from 
Saxony. Used in glass, it resulted in the 
deep, transparent shade of glass called 
"Bristol Blue." While some shapes retained 
Baroque strength of contour, there was an 
attempt to break up the solidity of form 
by broad vertical facet cutting, imparting a 
series of reflective surfaces to the vessels. 
The stems of English goblets and wine 
glasses gradually lost their baluster form 
and became cylindrical to permit the dis- 
play of delicate spiral twists of air or opaque 
white and colored threads. The bowls, too, 
change from conical shapes to diminutive 
buckets to complement the straight stems 



69 



and provide a better surface for decoration. 
The rise of a prosperous middle class in 
England made possible a wider possession 
of good glass than ever before. The number 
of inscribed glasses increased markedly and 
many were engraved with political mottoes, 
commemorative sentiments, emblems of 
trade societies and heraldic devices. Much 
of the engraving was done in England, but 
the best work continued to be done in Hol- 
land. English wares engraved in Holland 
often returned for sale in their native coun- 
try. In the 1760's, two brothers, William and 
Ralph Beilby, working in the glass center 
of Newcastle-on-Tyne, excelled in the 
enamelling of arms and romantic landscapes 
within free Rococo borders reminiscent of 
the fantasies of Paul de Lamerie, the famous 
English Huguenot silversmith. 

In Germany, covered cups and goblets be- 
came more slender as the 18th century pro- 
gressed and were sometimes given reverse 
curves in the bowl where it meets the stem. 
The decoration of Silesian engravers light- 
ened and sometimes rivalled once more the 
work of Dutch craftsmen. Towards the end 
of the century an Austrian, J. J. Mildner, 
elaborated the already complex zwischen- 
gold technique by including colored lac- 
quers in superb portrait glasses of plain 
tumbler shape with simple neo-classical 
engraving. 

Meanwhile, the English also turned from 
the Rococo style to the simpler contours of 
neo-classicism, but the refractive richness 
of their glass seemed to demand some fur- 
ther expression with the result that elabo- 
rate facet-cutting became common on 
English wares. The trend was abetted by 
economic factors when in 1777 a tax was 
placed on opaque twist stems. This tax was 
one of a series of levies on the English glass 
industry in the late 18th century. These 



taxes, like the Stamp Act which stimulated 
the American Revolution, were intended to 
finance Britain's military establishment, but 
succeeded mainly in imposing a hardship 
on the industry. Because of loopholes in 
the laws, glass produced in Ireland enjoyed 
a favorable tax position, and many English 
companies transferred their operations to 
Ireland. As a result, most English and Irish 
facet-cut wares are indistinguishable al- 
though both are called Waterford glass be- 
cause of their presumed association with the 
Irish glass center of that name. 

Waterford glass was very popular in France, 
being widely imitated, especially at Lyons, 
and helped to lend impetus to the emer- 
gence of the French Industry in the 19th 
century. 

The optical properties of facet-cutting were 
also popular in Germany in the early 19th 
century. The Germans, however, were not 
content with the clarity of lead glass and 
often cut facets through translucent stained 
tints or opaque overlays. The Baroque pre- 
dilection for engraving never died out in 
Germany. Many German facet-cut wares 
are also engraved. The combination of facet- 
cutting, engraving and color on solid bulbous 
shapes derived from classical forms resulted 
in the TSiedermeier style in glass. Bieder- 
meier wares were to provide the inspiration 
for American cut and engraved glass of the 
19th century. 



70 



POKAL. Facet-cut and wheel-engraved with 
crowned trophies of arms and sailing ship with 
Dutch inscription reading: "The nation's welfare." 
Germany (Saxony), for the Dutch market, about 
1750. 19¥z inches high. 53.86. 



GLASS BOX. Clear glass, silvered and gilded, 
wheel- engraved on dark green background. 
Interior is gold-mirrored glass with engraving ; 
copper gilt mounts. Germany (Silesia), about 1760. 
2y± inches long. Gift of Rosenberg and Stiebel, Inc. 
55.212. 





71 




GOBLET. Wheel-engraved in low and high relief, 
cut and stippled. Crowned monogram PHS 
engraved on foot. Workshop of Christian Gottfried 
Schneider (1710-1773). Germany (Warmbrunn, 
Silesia), about 1755. 6"'/s inches high. 15.144. 



GOBLET. Wheel-engraved with double-headed 
eagle of Russia and monogram of Catherine the 
Great (1732-1796). Russia (probably St. 
Petersburg), about 1780. 7% inches high. Gift of 
Mrs. Homer P. Hargrave. 60.24. 




72 



■■■ / 2» 







PAIR OF COVERED CUPS. "Bristol Blue" glass, 
facet-cut with silver-gilt mounts by Thomas 
Heming (London, active 1745-1781/2). England 
(Bristol or London), 1752/3. 12 5 /ie inches high. 
Ex-coll: Mulliner; Price, England. 68.73. 



73 




GOBLET. Clear with opaque white twist stem, 
enamelled with landscape by William Beilby 
(1740-1819) and Ralph Beilby (1743-1810). England 
(Newcastle-on-Tyne), 1765-70. 7 inches high. 
Ex-coll: Clements; Hughes, London. 63.15. 



GOBLET. Clear glass with air twist stem, wheel- 
engraved with the arms and motto "By faith I 
obtain" of the Worshipful Company of Turners 
(lathe workers) of London, England, 1750-1760. 
9\i inches high. 50.279. 




74 



"PRIVATEER" GLASSES. Clear with opaque 
white twist stems and wheel-engraving. England 
(Bristol), about 1760. Left: Inscribed "Success to 
the Hercules Privateer." 6% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Griffin, Gloucester. 67.139. Right: Inscribed 
"Success to the Lyon Privateer." 6Vi6 inches high. 
Ex-coll: Griffin, Gloucester. 67.138. 





DECANTER. Clear glass, enamelled with the arms 
of George III and the Prince of Wales. By William 
Beilby (1740-1819) and Ralph Beilby (1743-1810). 
England (Newcastle-on-Tyne), about 1762. 9y± 
inches high. Ex-coll: Clements; Hughes, London. 
63.16. 




75 



VASE. Opaque white glass ("enamel glass"). 
England (Bristol), 1760-1770. JOV ao inches high. 
64.35. 




CANDLESTICKS. Clear with facet-cutting. 
England, about 1770. 14 inches high. Ex-coll: 
Clements; Hughes, London. 63.11-12. 




76 




CHANDELIER. Clear glass jacet-cut and partly 
mirrored. England, 1775-1780. 75 inches high. 56.68. 



77 




BEAKER. Clear glass, facet cut with zwischengold 
and color inlays. Female portrait with dedicatory 
inscription and diamond engraved coat-of-arms. 
By J. J. Mildner (1763-1808). Austria, dated 1792. 
4% inches high. Ex-coll: Neuburg, Leitmeritz 
50.47. 



GOBLET. Facet-cut and diamond-point stippled 
by David Wolff (1732-1790) with an allegory of the 
Batavian Republic. Holland (The Hague) on 
English glass, about 1785. 5% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Neuburg, Leitmeritz. 50.34. 




78 





FOOTED BOWL. Clear glass, acid-etched (?), 
wheel-engraved and facet-cut. Bohemia, about 
1830. 6 inches high. 62.11. 





GOBLET. Clear glass with ruby flashing, engraved 
with scenic vignettes and commemorative 
inscription. 5 n /i6 inches high. Bohemia, dated 
1849. Gift of Dr. Frank W. Gunsaulus. 13.527. 



79 




DECANTER AND BEAKER. Facet-cut and 
wheel-engraved with transparent enamels. 
Bohemia, about 1840. 11% and 3]-i inches high. 
13.476-77. 



80 



DECANTER. Wheel-engraved. J.&L. Lobmeyr 
Glassworks. Austria (Vienna), about 1885. lOYi 
inches high. Ex-coll: Brady, New York; Farrell, 
Loudonville, N. Y. Gift of William F. Donovan. 
50.286. 



COVERED URN. Cobalt blue with opaque white 
trails and finial. Gj0vik Glassworks. Norway (Lake 
Mj0sa), 1810-30. 13V4 inches high. Ex-coll: Temple, 
Philadelphia. 23.3122. 





81 




AMERICAN GLASS 



In recent years, increased interest in glass 
produced by this country has been responsi- 
ble for a number of publications on the 
subject. This research has led to the estab- 
lishment of a generally accepted system of 
dates for the manufacture of American glass. 
These dates are intended only to serve as 
guidelines, for the styles always overlapped. 



AMERICAN GLASS, 1820-1910 (left to right) 
Pitcher. Blown, blue and white looped decoration, 
clear applied handle and foot. New Jersey, about 
1820. 10 inches high. 55.216. Decanter. Blown and 
cut, "Senora" pattern. The Libbey Glass Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, about 1896-1906. 14% inches high. 
Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.226. Bowl. Blown 
3-mold, G-II-18 pattern. Attributed to the Boston 
and Sandwich Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., 
about 1825-1835. Diameter 9% inches. 59.61. 
Covered Casket and Tray. Pressed, blue, "Gothic" 
pattern. Attributed to the Boston and Sandwich 
Glass Company, 1830-1850. 7M inches high. Gift of 
Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 68.34. Pitcher. Pressed, 
"Diamond Point" pattern, applied and tooled 
handle. Attributed to The New England Glass 
Company, East Cambridge, Mass., about 1850. 9 
inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.184. 



The Early American Period 

1739—1830 

The glass industry in America began around 
1608 in the Jamestown colony of Virginia. 
The English founders of the colony had 
hoped that the abundant supply of sand near 
virgin forests would foster establishment of 
a profitable glass industry. The preservation 
of English forests had become a necessity, 
and the firing of glass furnaces with wood 
created a severe drain on the dwindling tim- 
ber supply of England. Jamestown appeared 
to be an ideal solution to the problem, and 
the London Company hoped that an increas- 
ing supply of glass goods would be shipped 
back to England. The difficulties of frontier 
life, however, caused attention to be turned 
to agriculture, and the Jamestown glass- 
works never produced anything more than 
beads, bottles, and crude drinking vessels. 
The design of these was indubitably English 
and began the tradition of borrowing styles 
and techniques which has persisted in 
American glass until the present day. 

In spite of this inauspicious beginning, hope 
for successful glass manufacture in this 
country persisted, and attempts at glass- 
making were made at Salem, Massachusetts; 
New Amsterdam, New York; and Phila- 
delphia. None of these ventures met with 
great success, and little glass was produced 
between the early 17th century and the 



83 



establishment of Caspar Wistar's southern 
New Jersey glass factory in 1739. In spite 
of a flooding of the American market with 
English glass, the Wistar factory survived. 
The tradition begun by his workmen and 
those of a factory opened in 1781 at nearby 
Glassboro is today known as South Jersey. 

South Jersey glass was generally free-blown 
and subsequently tooled into pitchers, 
bowls, and bottles of beautiful simple lines. 
A large portion of this glass displayed super- 
imposed decoration of crimped and pinched 
bands of glass, trailing, or quilling. The 
colors were generally those occurring natu- 
rally in the metal — green, aquamarine, 
amber — although swirled and looped effects 
were possible by the introduction of addi- 
tional opaque colors of red and white. Al- 
though the shapes to which these decora- 
tions were applied were derived from the 
Anglo-Irish tradition, the most original and 
inventive technique employed by South Jer- 
sey craftsmen was the "lily-pad" motif. This 
device which resembled the water lily stem 
and pad was an American contribution to 
glassmaking and had no known European 
antecedents. In the early 19th century, many 
of the South Jersey stylistic devices made 
their way to New York and were seen in 
such factories as Redwood and Redford. 

The second successful American glasshouse 
was that of the German immigrant, Henry 
William Stiegel, at his Elizabeth Furnace 
and Manheim, Pennsylvania works. Stiegel 
set out to compete with expensive European 
imports by producing glass of fine quality 
and design and succeeded so well that many 
of his wares were indistinguishable from 
their Continental counterparts. Between 
1769 and 1774, the Stiegel works produced 
glass which was highly sophisticated in de- 
sign and expertly finished. Items were fre- 
quently decorated with enamelled peasant 
motifs, wheel-engraving, and pattern mold- 



ings. The American Revolution, increasing 
costs, and Stiegel's extravagant way of life 
eventually drained his funds, causing the 
closing of the Manheim works. 

Another German, John Frederick Amelung, 
became an important glass manufacturer 
with the founding of his New Bremen Glass 
Manufactory near Frederick, Maryland, in 
1784. Although the Amelung works oper- 
ated for only one decade, its clear glass de- 
canters, glasses, and goblets set a high 
standard. These pieces frequently bore en- 
graved commemorative inscriptions and 
dates. The shallow wheel-engraving was 
exuberantly conceived, superbly executed, 
and unequalled by any other 18th century 
or early 19th century American glasshouse. 

The establishment of glasshouses quite natu- 
rally followed the path of civilization, and 
in 1797, Albert Gallatin founded the New 
Geneva Glassworks in western Pennsyl- 
vania, the first glass factory west of the 
Allegheny Mountains. The factory operated 
for 10 years, and its wares are characterized 
by simple shapes, pale green and yellow 
colors. Following the lead of Gallatin, many 
important American glasshouses were 
founded in the Midwestern area during the 
opening years of the 19th century. Several 
were established in Ohio, where the works 
at Zanesville, Ravenna, Mantua, and Kent 
produced a variety of wares. These early 
Ohio glasshouses are characterized by sim- 
ple bold shapes and a pronounced ribbing. 

In the early 19th century many more glass- 
houses were established, and many con- 
tinued to prosper. Some, like the New Eng- 
land Glass Company of East Cambridge, 
Massachusetts (founded 1818) and the Bos- 
ton and Sandwich Glass Company of Cape 
Cod (founded 1825) , became giants in the 
field and produced an enormous quantity 
of objects. Window (or crown) glass and 



84 



bottles were the principal early products of 
these companies, but growing prosperity 
and refinement in living soon created a mar- 
ket for finer wares, which were produced 
in every section of the country. 

Improvements in glass manufacture were 
made, among them mechanical pressing, in 
which the United States took the lead. Al- 
though the blowpipe has dominated the his- 
tory of glass, American inventions in the 
late 1820's permitted the pressing of a mol- 
ten mass of glass in a hand-operated mold 
into elaborately stippled or plain shapes. 
The stippled wares are today known as "lacy 
glass" and were produced in both the New 
England and Midwestern areas. Simple 
molds, manually pressed together, produced 
salt cellars and cup plates whose design 
inexpensively imitated cut glass. This imi- 
tative quality also characterized blown 
three-mold glass, a technique employing a 
three-part mold connected by hinges to a 
base. The blower expanded his gather of 
glass within the closed mold until the glass 
filled the ridged pattern of the mold; the 
mold was then opened, and the object was 
manipulated with tools if further decoration 
was desired. 

Among the most popular of the American 
mold-blown objects were historical flasks, 
which were ornamented with political fig- 
ures, popular slogans, and national heroes. 
These were originally made to contain liquor 
and were made throughout the 19th century. 
The flasks are often amusing evidence of 
history in the making. In a period of ex- 
panding and impassioned nationalism, it is 
not surprising that flasks bore portraits of 
national heroes like George Washington, 
Benjamin Franklin, and the Marquis de La- 
fayette. The American eagle appears more 
frequently than any other motif. Masonic 
emblems and political slogans were often 
used. The established glasshouses competed 



for this lucrative market with novel designs 
and currently popular references. 

While these mold-blown and pressed wares 
were popular in this early period, fine blown 
and cut wares continued to be produced. 
The earliest known specimens of American 
cut glass date from 1771, although there is 
evidence that cutting may have been prac- 
tised in this country even earlier. Simple 
flutes, panels, stars, and plain geometric 
bands were used extensively. Engraving 
was also done in this country, the favored 
motifs being fruit and floral forms as well 
as classical swags and festoons. Pieces so 
decorated were hand-polished on wooden 
wheels so that they have a soft luster which 
is distinct from the later high-speed wheel 
polishing or acid bath. Fine cut designs were 
made by Amelung, the Bakewell Company 
of Pittsburgh, the New England Glass Com- 
pany, and the Boston and Sandwich Glass 
Company. 

By 1830, the American glass industry had 
become so well established that the country 
no longer needed to depend on imported 
glass. Consequently, in that year a high 
Federal tariff was levied on glass from Eu- 
rope. The Baldwin Bill, passed in that year, 
called for the collection of port duties and a 
tariff high enough to limit imports severely. 
The passage of this act created a boom in 
American glass manufacture and the sub- 
sequent beginning of a true American style. 




85 




ST1EGEL-TYPE GLASS. Attributed to Henry 
William Stiegel, Manheim, Perm. Mug. Blown, 
enamelled dove in heart-shaped device and lilies of 
the valley. 1765-1774. 5% inches high. 17.298. 
Covered Mug. Blown, engraved with cartouche 
centered by an eagle on a flowering branch. 
Attributed to Stiegel or the Philadelphia area, about 
1750-1775. 10 r 'Ar, inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold 
G. Duckworth. 67.101. Tumbler. Blown, enamelled 
church and floral sprays. 1765-1774. 4 inches high. 
17.300. 




PITCHER. Blown, green lilypad decoration, 
threaded neck, applied handle. South Jersey, about 
1800-1825. 7% inches high. 59.73. 



86 




GOBLET. Blown, engraved with "G. F. Mauerhoff" 
and "New Bremen, State of Maryland, Frederick 
County, Maryland, 1792," conventionalized floral 
mantling. New Bremen Glass Manufactory, 
Frederick, Md., 1792. 7% inches high. 61.2. 



87 



VASE. Blown, applied tooled decoration, light blue 
South Jersey, late 18th or early 19th century. 8 x /\ 
inches high. 17.219. 



AMELUNG GLASS. Flask. Expanded 
mold bloum, amethyst, Checkered Diamond 
pattern. Attributed to New Bremen Glass 
Manufactory, Frederick, Md., about 1785-1795. 
6 l /2 inches high. 59.89. Firing Glasses. Blown, 
engraved Masonic devices and floral sprays. 
Attributed to New Bremen Glass Manujactory, 
Frederick, Md., about 1785-1795. 4 and 4% inches 
high. 59.43-44. Decanter. Blown, engraved 
American eagle. Possibly New Bremen Glass 
Manufactory, Frederick, Md., about 1785-1795. 
llVs inches high. 59.45. 









SUGAR BOWL. Mold-blown, dark blue, "Spiral 
and Diamond" pattern. Zanesville or Mantua Glass 
Companies, Ohio, about 1822-1829. 6% inches 
high. Ex-coll: Barber, 17265. 



PITCHER. Blown, applied guilloche bands and 
handle. The New England Glass Company or South 
Boston Glassworks, about 1820. 6% inches high. 
Gift of Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 64.71. 



BLOWN 3-MOLD GLASS. Pitcher. Blown 3-mold, 
G-IV-7 "Arch" pattern. Attributed to the Boston 
and Sandwich Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., 
about 1825-1835. 7V i inches high. 59.91. Celery Vase. 
Blown 3-mold, G-II-18 pattern. Attributed to 
Coventry Glass Works, Conn., about 1825-1835. 
8Yn inches high. 59.54. 



SUGAR BOWL. Expanded mold blown, amethyst. 
Bakewell, Page, and Bakewell, Pittsburgh, Penn., 
about 1820-1830. 7% inches high. 48.47. 









89 




HISTORIC FLASKS (left to right) All blown in 
mold. Pint. Olive-obverse: George Washington 
and "Albany Glass Works, Albany, N.Y." 
Reverse: Full-rigged railing ship. Albany Glass 
works, Albany, N.Y., about 1820. 7V4 inches high. 
Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.368. Pint. Brown. 
Obverse: Eagle. Reverse: Cornucopia. Perhaps 
the Keene Glassworks, Keene, New Hampshire, 
about 1825-1850. 6% inches high. Ex-coll: Barber, 
Philadelphia. 17.536. Pint. Aquamarine. Obverse: 
Railroad engine and "Success to the Railroad." 
Identical reverse. Lancaster Glassworks, Lancaster, 
N.Y., about 1850-1870. 6% inches high. Ex-coll: 
Barber, Philadelphia. 17.405. Quart. Aquamarine. 
Obverse: Louis Kossuth and "Louis Kossuth." 
Reverse: The frigate Mississippi and "U.S. Steam 
Frigate Mississippi, S. Huffsey." S. Huffsey 
Glassworks, Philadelphia, Penn., about 1851-1852. 
9V4 inches high. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 
17.438. Pint. Blue. Obverse: Columbia with 
Phrygian cap, 13 stars, and "Kensington." Reverse: 
Eagle and "Union Co." Kensington Union 
Company, Philadelphia, Penn., about 1810. 7% 
mches high. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.385. 
This is a unique example. Pint. Brown. Obverse: 
Eagle and "Zanesville, Ohio, J. Shepard and Co." 
Reverse: Masonic Arch and Farmers' Tools. White 
Glassworks, Zanesville, Ohio, 1823-1838. 6% 
inches high. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.409. 



90 



PITCHER. (South Jersey type). Lily pad Type II, 
threaded neck, light green glass. New York 
State, about 1825-1850. Ht. 9% inches high, top 
diameter 6% inches. 59.86. 




FOOTED BOWL. Blown, aquamarine, lilypad 
decoration. Redwood Glass Works, Redwood, N.J., 
about 1833-1850. Diameter 14% inches. 59.75. 




91 




OHIO GLASS (left to right) Bowl. Expanded 
mold-blown, folded rim, 20 ribs, amber. Kent 
factory, about 1830. Diameter 9Y> inches. 53.167. 
Flask. Mold-blown, 10 diamond pattern, light 
amber. Zanesville factory, about 1820. 5\ J ± inches 
high. 53.164. Footed Bowl. Expanded mold-blown, 
16 ribs, amethyst, folded rim. Mantua Glassworks, 
about 1830. Diameter 6% inches. 53.165. Flip Glass. 
Blown, blue. Zanesville factory, about 1830. 7 inches 
high. 53.166. 




PITCHER. Expanded mold blown, clear, applied 
handle. Pittsburgh area, about 1825-1830. 
8 inches high. Ex-coll: McKearin, Hoosick Falls, 
New York. 59.51. 



92 




VASE. Blown, aquamarine, threaded neck and 
applied handles. New York State, about 1820-1830. 
8Vj inches high. Ex-coll: McKearin, Hoosick 
Falls, New York. 48.46. 



BOWL. Blown, aquamarine, jolded rim. New York 
about 1830. 5% inches high. Diameter 10 inches. 
Gift of J. R. Young. 39.84. 




93 










£^3&> 













£ 




I 








n ■• ;n# 





COVERED VASE. Blown, ruby flashing over clear; 
cut in all-over pattern oj stars and parallel, 
intersecting bands. Bohemian style. Attributed to 
The New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass., about 1845. 2%'-'</± inches high. Gift of Frank 
W. Gunsaulus. 13.540. 



The Middle Period 

1830—1880 



The new tariff laws of 1830 fostered the 
rapid development of the American glass 
industry. These laws made the manufacture 
of fine tableware especially profitable, and 
by 1840 there were at least 81 glasshouses 
in operation. With this new protection from 
foreign imports and subsequent manufac- 
turing independence came a preference for 
domestic styles and designs. This, together 
with increasing prosperity, created a de- 
mand for glass items of an enormous variety. 

American manufacturers continued to lead 
the field in the production of lacy and 
pressed glass, and by 1840 were producing 
a great quantity of objects, including gob- 
lets, vegetable dishes, lamps, trays, and 
jewel caskets. All of these appeared in a 
variety of colors and were made in all parts 
of the country. With the great variety avail- 
able to the public came an increasing desire 
on the part of the buyer for novel patterns 
and shapes. Glasshouses found it necessary 
to cater more and more to changing modes. 
This characteristic was to become even 
more marked in the later years of the cen- 
tury. The public taste for stippled lacy glass 
had waned by the 1850's although great 
quantities of the plainer pressed items were 
made through the 1870's and in lesser quan- 
tity throughout the closing years of the 
century. 

Early pressed glass pieces were of lead 
glass, an expensive and brilliant metal. 
However, in West Virginia in 1864, a less 
costly soda-lime glass was developed. Soon, 
this cheaper formula was used by almost all 
of the glasshouses, and only a few were able 
to maintain the high standards of lead glass. 
The newer soda-lime glass did not have the 
ring or rich look of the traditional lead glass, 
but it was admirably suited to producing the 
great variety demanded by the public. 



95 




With the introduction of the soda-lime for- 
mula, the cut glass market was even more 
threatened than it had been by earlier 
pressed wares, for now cut glass which 
could only be made of lead glass had to com- 
pete with less expensive pressing methods 
as well as a cheaper metal. In order to deal 
with this double threat, those cut glass man- 
ufacturers who did not convert to the pro- 
duction of pressed pieces made cut items 
which could not be duplicated on the press- 
ing machine. Cutting continued the use of 
the flute, crosshatching, fan, and diamond 
motifs but used these in greater profusion 
than the earlier period. At all times, how- 
ever, the decoration was subordinate to the 
shape of the glass. 

The popularity of engraving reached its 
zenith during this Middle Period of 1830- 
1880. The earliest pieces of this era were of 
clear glass with unpolished engraving, while 
later Middle Period engraving was used on 
glass of two colors, such as blue on white 
or red on white. 

Colored cut and engraved glass is essentially 
a product of this period and may be divided 
into four types: one color throughout, two 
or more colors cased (overlaid) together, 
one color flashed (a thin layer of glass) with 
another, and glass of one color with a luster 
stain which is the least desirable since the 
color results from a chemical staining and 
not from a coating of actual glass. The Bo- 
hemian style, popular from 1840 through the 
1860's, was the earliest style in Middle Pe- 
riod cut glass and was usually associated 
with red over white cased glass decorated 
with engraved landscapes, hunting scenes, 
naturalistic motifs, and, occasionally, cut- 
ting and faceting in simple overall geometric 
patterns. Later pieces used more elaborate 
cuttings, producing elegant effects of 
contrast. 



Favorite engraved patterns were fruit and 
floral motifs, urns, hunting scenes, and land- 
scapes. While often based on earlier designs, 
those of the Middle Period were exquisitely 
detailed. Many of the best engraved designs 
of this period appeared to be sculptured in 
relief. Louis Vaupel (about 1812-1903) and 
Henry Fillebrown of the New England 
Glass Company were two of the most skilled 
engravers of the period. Their spectacular 
and rare work places them in the first rank 
of Middle Period craftsmen. 

The Middle Period also witnessed the pro- 
duction of fine paperweights, both in Europe 
and the United States. It is appropriate to 
discuss them as a unit here since the tech- 
niques employed were similar, and many of 
the American examples were based on Eu- 
ropean prototypes. The earliest weights 
were probably made in Venice in the early 
19th century, although the mosaic pattern 
called millefiori, which was the basis for 
paperweight design, had been known since 
Egyptian times. The millefiori patterns were 
made from multi-colored rods of glass cut 
into pieces and arranged in a pattern. These 
were fused together and then dipped in 
clear glass repeatedly until the desired size 
was reached, after which the weight was 
tooled and finished. Almost all paperweight 
designs are a variation of this technique. 
France was a leading maker of weights, and 
many American weights closely follow 
French designs, while others were too elab- 
orate for the American taste. 

By 1870, those manufacturers who had 
clung to the traditional lead glass standards 
found that they were facing severe financial 
difficulty. The popularity of the pressed pat- 
tern glass had cut deeply into the luxury 
market, and the disruptions of the Civil War 
had done little to promote the need for fine, 
expensive tablewares. With these problems 



96 






■^zrfffm ■■< 




ufiBEk 



came the Panic of 1873, which closed many 
of the remaining cutting houses. By 1876, 
the year of the famous Philadelphia Cen- 
tennial Exhibition, the surviving luxury 
glass manufacturers realized that nothing 
short of a massive publicity campaign would 
save the failing market. Leading houses 
such as Gillinder and Sons of Philadelphia, 
the New England Glass Company, the 
Mount Washington, Boston and Sandwich 
companies, and Christian Dorflinger of 
White Mills, Pennsylvania, produced elab- 
orate exhibits which attracted much favor- 
able attention. The displayed wares 
exhibited a wealth of deep cutting, and pat- 
terns were more elaborate than usually 
seen. The glittering profusion set forth by 
the troubled glasshouses rekindled public 
interest in heavily decorated wares and 
started an unprecedented popularity for 
cut glass. 



■ 5>s S2Sa.: I 







PAIR OF CANDLESTICKS. Pressed and tooled. 
Midwestern area, about 1830-1835. 8% inches high. 
Gift of Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 66.31. 



PITTSBURGH AREA GLASS. Celery Vase. 
Blown, cut with Strawberry Diamond and Fan 
motif. Pittsburgh area, about 1835. 7% inches 
high. 59.62. Tumbler. Blown, cut with Strawberry 
Diamond and Fan motifs; suphide portrait in 
base, probably of George Clinton. Bakewell, Page, 
and Bakewell, Pittsburgh, Penn., about 1825-1830. 
3Y> inches high. 59.53. Footed Bowl. Blown, 
engraved with floral frieze. Pittsburgh area, about 
1825-1840. Diameter 8\i inches. 59.49. Vase. 
Expanded mold-blown, threaded lip, engraved 
festoons. Pittsburgh area, about 1820-1835. 7% 
inches high. 59.47. 




97 



,-« SJ 



i \ 



mm 



"*>' " ^ 



•w'///'':: 






^V-" ^r!^* 
# 







- . * - 



%* %gi 4BB*- \> ^"w* 



«S*' 



CAKE TRAY. Pressed. Attributed to the Boston 
and Sandwich Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., 
about 1835. Length 11% inches. Ex-coll: J. H. 
Rose, Canton, Ohio. 62.12. 





LAMP. Pressed, blown, and cut. The Neio England 
Glass Company, East Cambridge, Mass., about 
1830. ll i5 /U inches high. Gijt of S. L. Fillebrown. 
49.21. Cut by Joseph Burdakin. 



98 




ff ;i ' 






COVERED SWEETMEAT DISH. Pressed, Peacock 
Eye pattern. Attributed to the Boston and 
Sandwich Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., 
about 1830-1835. 5% inches high. Gift of Mrs. 
Harold G. Duckworth. 67.46. 




LAMP. Blown and pressed opaque white. Probably 
The New England Glass Company, East Cambridge , 
Mass., about 1830-1835. 10'jia inches high. Gift of 
Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 69.108. 




COMPOTE. Pressed, amethyst, Princess Feather 
Medallion pattern. Attributed to the Boston and 
Sandwich Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., about 
1835-1840. 6Y H inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. 
Duckworth. 68.42. 



99 





PAIR OF VASES. Pressed, yellow, Four Printie 
Block pattern. Probably the Boston and Sandwich 
Glass Company, Sandwich, Mass., about 1835-1850. 
11% inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 
67.122. 






1*4* 







COMPOTE. Blown, cut with modified Strawberry 
Diamond and Fan frieze. Attributed to the 
Pittsburgh area, about 1840-1850. Diameter 
9 1 /) inches. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 
64.67. 



100 



COVERED SUGAR BOWL. Blown, tooled, and 
threaded. The New England Glass Company, East 
Cambridge, Mass., about 1840. 9% inches high. 
Ex-coll: McKearin, Hoosick Falls, N.Y.; L. W. 
Watkins, Middleton, Mass. 53.75. 




BOWL. Blown in mold, diamond diapering. The 
New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass., about 1840. Length 8 inches. Ex-coll: L.W. 
Watkins, Middleton, Mass. 53.15. 




101 




VASE. Blown, cased, ruby over clear and gold 
flashing; engraved with stag and trees. Bohemian 
style. The New England Glass Company, East 
Cambridge, Mass., about 1870-1885. 5% inches 
high. Gift of Marie W. Greenhalgh in memory of 
Alice Libbey Walbridge and William S. Walbridge. 
58.66. 

This vase and its late date illustrate the long-lived 
popularity oj the Bohemian style in this country. 







^SPx 




GROUP OF PAPERWEIGHTS, American and 
European (clockwise from head at bottom) 
Pressed, acid-finished female head in relief. Made 
as a souvenir for the World's Columbian 
Exposition, Chicago, 1893. The Libbey Glass 
Company, Toledo, Ohio, 1893. Gift of William E. 
Levis. 51.299. Floral garland on turquoise blue 
ground. Clichy, France, about 1850. Ex-coll: 
Barber, Philadelphia. 17.549. Scrarribled cane. 
Attributed to The New England Glass Company, 
East Cambridge, Mass., about 1865. Ex-coll: 
Barber, Philadelphia. 17.543. Flat bouquet on spiral 
latticinio ground. The New England Glass 
Company, East Cambridge , Mass., about 1850. 
Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.537. Flat bouquet 
on red-white jasper ground. St. Louis, France, 
about 1840. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.502. 
Scrambled cane, several canes dated 1852. The 
New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass., 1852. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.448. 
Scrambled, muslin and aventurine. Venice, Italy, 
about 1845. Ex-coll: Barber, Philadelphia. 17.446. 
Center: Magnum bouquet, star cut base. Baccarat, 
France, about 1830-1835. Ex-coll: Barber, 
Philadelphia. 17.518. 



102 




MUG. Blown, threaded, and engraved with "W.W.. 
July 18, 1842." Attributed to The New England 
Glass Company, East Cambridge, Mass., 1842. 
6Vs inches high. Ex-coll: McKearin, Hoosick Falls, 
N.Y. 59.48. 





PAIR OF LAMPS. Blown jonts and standards on 
pressed pawed bases. New England area, about 
1835-1845. 12"'Ae, inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. 
Duckworth. 67.97. 



§ 




103 





PITCHER. Blown, cased, amber over clear, 
engraved with stag and trees. Bohemian style. 
Attributed to The New England Glass Company, 
East Cambridge, Mass., or the New York area, 
about 1840-1860. U% inches high. 13.545. 



104 




^\ 








NEW ENGLAND AREA LAMPS, (left to right) 
Pressed, blue font, Single Tulip pattern, green shaft 
and base. Perhaps the Boston and Sandwich Glass 
Company, Sandwich, Mass., about 1840-1850. 12 
inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 
68.46. Pressed, green font, white shaft and base; 
both in Acanthus pattern. Acid-finished surface. 
Perhaps the Boston and Sandwich Glass Company, 
Sandwich, Mass., about 1840-1850 and possibly 
later. 11% inches high. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. 
Duckworth. 68.40. 



PAIR OF LAMPS. Pressed, canary yellow, Plain 
Panel fonts on square pedestal and plinth. Perliaps 
The New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass., about 1847-1861. 10\' 2 inches high. Gift of 
Mrs. Harold G. Duckworth. 67.105. 



COMPOTE. Pressed, clear and cobalt glass, Fine 
Diamond pattern with scallops. The Central Glass 
Company, Wheeling, W. Va., about 1870-1880. 
Diameter 8% inches. Gift of Mrs. Harold G. 
Duckworth. 65.74. This compote was also produced 
in a reversed color scheme. 





105 



-^ y V y /^ 



-^ •^^^ / - j 



COMPOTE. Blown, cut in Strawberry Diamond 
motif with flutes and scallops. The New England 
Glass Company, East Cambridge, Mass., about 
1872-1876. Diameter 8 inches. Ex-coll: Dalton, 
Somerville, Mass. 59.25. 





COVERED SUGAR BOWL. Pressed, Huber 
pattern; engraved with grape and floral motif. The 
New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass.5% inches high. Ex-coll: Dalton, Somerville, 
Mass. 59.28. 



106 




DECANTER. Blown, cut, and engraved with, "New 
Engld. Glass Company. Boston" and "Mass. Genl. 
Head Qrs." The New England Glass Company, East 
Cambridge, Mass., 1876. 10% inches high. Ex-coll: 
McKearin, Hoosick Falls, N.Y. 48.4. 



TOILET BOTTLE. Blown, opaque turquoise blue 
gla.ss, enamelled floral sprays and, gold bands. The 
New England Glass Company, East Cambridge, 
Mass., about 1875. 4% inches high. Ex-coll: Dalton, 
Somerville, Mass. 59.31. 




107 




PUNCHBOWL AND CUPS. Blown, cut, "Star and 
Diamond" pattern. The Libbey Glass Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, 1903-1904. Diameter of bowl 25 
inches. Cups 4Yg inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 46.27. This set was cut for the 1904 St. Louis 
World's Fair where it received a Citation of Honor. 
The bowl was cut by John Rufus Denman 
(1877-1956), one of the Libbey master cutters. 



The Brilliant Period 

1880—1915 



Establishment of definite dates for this 
phase of American glass history is particu- 
larly difficult since it is generally associated 
with cut glass, although a great variety of 
other types were also made. To further the 
difficulty, the 1876 Centennial Exhibition 
really marked the beginning of popular de- 
mand for deeply cut ware, although this 
fashion did not reach its zenith until after 
Chicago's Columbian Exposition of 1893. 
Finally, although the heavy cut wares most 
frequently associated with the period 
reached their greatest popularity around 
1905, their design influence was felt through 
1915. 

Following the Centennial Exhibition, glass- 
houses continued to produce the fine-line 
cuttings and copper-wheel engraving which 
distinguished the Middle Period. However, 
by 1880, glass craftsmen designed deep 
mitre cuttings which were applied to a 
heavy metal of great brilliance. These dec- 
orations became known as brilliant cuttings, 
and it is these which the average American 
most frequently thinks of as cut glass. From 
the beginning, these cut patterns tended to 
cover most of the surface of the piece they 
embellished, and after the turn of the cen- 
tury, they tended to increasing elaboration 
and a subjugation of form to ornament. Fa- 
vored motifs were the hob-star, fan, notched 
prism, and single star. 

Cut glass had always been expensive be- 
cause of the labor involved. However, the 
vogue for overall deep cuttings in the Bril- 
liant Period made it even more costly than 
before. Its production depended upon the 
lower production costs of the time and a 
widespread buying public. During the years 
from 1880 to 1915, cut glass became a sym- 
bol of social prestige. Its opulent surfaces 
were admirably suited to the formal living 
patterns of the age. The new prosperity in 



109 



PLATE. Pressed, opaque white; enamelled 
cartouche , border and "portrait oj Henry Wadsworth 
Longjellow. The New England Glass Company, 
East Cambridge, Mass., about 1882-1888. Diameter 
13!5/i 6 inches. Ex-coll: E. D. Libbey, Toledo, Ohio. 
25.50. 




our country created a market sufficient to 
sustain the high cost of the heavy lead glass 
and its expensive ornamentation. 

Like many other fashions in history, how- 
ever, the technical virtuosity of brilliant cut 
glass resulted in its own downfall. The in- 
creasing elaboration of pattern produced 
confused design. This, coupled with a public 
taste which tired of the ponderous opulence 
of the glass, began the decline from favor of 
deeply cut wares. The informality of post- 
World War I America meant that there was 
no longer a place for the elaborate sets and 
complementary pieces of cut glass. Soaring 
costs of production also worked to inhibit 
the continued manufacture of this glass. 
High cost of materials and craftsmanship 
simply meant that the Brilliant Period cut- 
tings had priced themselves out of existence. 

Public demand for novelty of color and 
form, which had begun in the Middle Pe- 
riod, reached a high point in the Brilliant 
Period and found expression in the colored 
art glass so often associated with the late 
Victorian era. The term art glass has been 
applied to all of the varicolored decorative 
wares of the period. As the century drew to 
a close, increasing attention was paid by all 
the major companies to exotic effects and 
finishes rather than to superior form. Some 
of the effects obtained had undeniable 
beauty and appeal, while many were simply 
reflections of a mass taste which would ac- 
cept anything so long as it was novel. 

Many of the exotic colors introduced were 
the result of careful experimentation by 
company scientists, and many of the major 
glasshouses hired men for the sole purpose 
of devising new coloring. One of the most 
famous of these technicians was Joseph 
Locke (1846-1936) who patented art glass 
for the New England Glass Company. The 
Mount Washington Glass Company of New 
Bedford, Massachusetts, and the Hobbs- 



Brockunier firm of Wheeling, West Virginia, 
were also important art glass manufacturers. 

Art glass was extremely popular in England 
as well and was made by a number of well- 
known glasshouses. As had been the case 
throughout the century, designs and decora- 
tions were pirated so that there was fre- 
quently a great similarity between English 
and American pieces. This is quite logical 
when it is realized that both nations were 
experiencing economic prosperity and a 
burgeoning middle class. 

The elaborately shaded color effects of this 
Victorian art glass were often combined 
with enamelled scenes, figures, birds, and 
floral motifs. Some were based upon 18th 
century Rococo design while others were 
distinctly Victorian in feeling. Other tech- 
niques were also used in order to meet the 
incessant demand for novelty, and these in- 
cluded engraving, mold-blowing, casing, 
elaborate crimping, and the use of elaborate 
metal mounts to hold the glass objects. 

The most famous American art glass types 
included Amberina, Pomona, Wild Rose, 
Agata, and Maize of the New England Glass 
Company; Burmese, Peach Blow, Crown 
Milano, and Royal Flemish of the Mount 
Washington Glass Company; Icicle and 
Fireglow of the Boston and Sandwich Glass 
Company; and the late Wave Crest, Kelva, 
and Nakara of the C. T. Monroe Company. 

Although art glass is still manufactured in 
quantity today, the present production does 
not exhibit the variety of technique avail- 
able to the 19th century purchaser. The de- 
mand for such wares reached a zenith of 
production and demand in the closing years 
of the Victorian era, and this has not since 
been equalled. 



110 




THREE AMBERINA PIECES. The New England 
Glass Company, East Cambridge, Mass., about 
1883-1888. Pitcher. Blown, cut in Russian pattern. 
12% inches high. Gift oj Miss Dorothy -he e Jones. 
67.14. Vase. Drinking horn shape. Expanded 
mold-blown, applied domed foot. 7% inches high. 
Gift of Marie W. Greenhalgh in memory of Alice 
Libbey Walbridge and William S. Walbridge. 
58.63. Pitcher. Expanded mold-blown, Thumb Print 
pattern. 12Y_> inches high. Gift of Marie W. 
Greenhalgh in memory of Alice Libbey Walbridge 
and William S. Walbridge. 58.64. 



VASE. Amberina, expanded mold-blown. The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 
1917-1920. 15 inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 51.55. 

This vase is an example of the Amberina wares 
whose production was briefly revived by the 
Libbey Glass Company. 




Ill 




POMONA GLASS. The New England Glass 
Company, East Cambridge, Mass., 1885-1888. (left 
to right) Creamer. Expanded mold-blown, incised 
cornflower pattern. 2% inches high. Gift of 
Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.206. Bowl. Blown, tooled 
rim, incised cornflower pattern, applied feet. 
Diameter 514 inches. Gift of Marie W. Greenhalgh 
in memory of Alice Libbey Walbridge and William 
S. Walbridge. 58.68. 




ART GLASS BY JOSEPH LOCKE (1846-1936) 
Plate. Blown, opaqne white glass with enamelled 
figure of a girl carrying a dog and the legend: 
"Tiresome Dog." Signed: J. Locke, '92. Diameter 
6Y± inches. Gift of William A. Geroe. 51.274. Vase. 
Blown, cased, opaque white over lavender-ruby; 
cameo cut with orchid spray, white bands. 
Attributed to Joseph Locke, The New England 
112 



Glass Company, East Cambridge, Mass., about 
1885. 9 inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 
51.203. 

Joseph Locke was an experienced glass technician 
who was hired by The New England Glass 
Company in 1883 and patented all of its art glass 
types until 1889. 







^St&^iS 



/•-j» stses -"-a* <-':'~J 






CRADLE. Blown and cut, variant Russian pattern. 
The New England Glass Company, W. L. Libbey 
and Son, Proprietors, East Cambridge, Mass., about 
1886. Length 9 inches. Gift of Mrs. G. A. Morison. 
62.33. 

Presented by Edward Drurmnond Libbey to the 
brother of the donor at his birth. This is an unusual 
example of Brilliant Period cutting at an early date. 



PAIR OF VASES. Peachblow type, blown, opaque, 
ranging from pale cream to deep rose at rim. The 
New England Glass Company , East Cambridge, 
Mass., 1885. 11\'\ inches high. Gift of William 
Donovan through Dorothy Donovan Farrell. 50.284. 
and 50.285. 




113 




DECANTER. Bloion, light rose with opaque white 
loopings; applied clear glass decoration and foot. 
By John Liddell, The Mount Washington 
Glassworks, New Bedford, Mass., about 1885. 19~/s 
inches high. Gift of Alexander K. Liddell and 
Christina Dewar Newth. 54.12. 



114 



r 




/ 







PAIR OF VASES. Burmese, blown, opaque, 
ranging from cream to light pink. By John Liddell, 
The Mount Washington Glassworks, New Bedford, 
Mass. 15% inches high. Gift of Alexander K. 
Liddell and Christina Dewar Newth. 54.9. 




MAIZE GLASS. The W. L. Libbey and Son 
Company, East Cambridge, Mass., and Toledo, 
Ohio, about 1888-1889. (left to right). Vase. 
Pressed, opaque white with painted green leaves. 
6% e inches high. Gift of Mrs. E. M. Belknap. 
65.189. Pitcher. Pressed, opaque white with painted 
blue leaves edged in gold. 8% inches high. 68.08. 



115 



^---s 




lb 




-..**■ ■-■■ 



'■■ : --' 



& 


m 







•J 







£ 





PUNCH BOWL AND SIX CUPS. Blown and 
engraved with hunting scenes. The Libbey Glass 
Company, Toledo, Ohio, perhaps 1892-1893. Bowl 
13 l: yic inches high. Cups 3% inches high. Gift of 
The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio. 15.16. 
This unique set was awarded a gold medal at the 
1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. 




ICE CREAM PLATE. Blown, cut; Kimberly 
pattern. The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, 
about 1892. Diameter 7%g inches. Gift of 
Owens-Illinois, Inc., 51.86. 

Kimberly, one of the popular luxury patterns, was 
named after Charles G. Kimberly, a New Haven 
dealer in glassware. 




116 




FINDLAY ONYX. Dalzell, Gilmore, and Leighton 
Glass Company, Findlay, Ohio, about 1889. (left to 
right) Syrup Jug. Mold-blown, opalescent, silver 
lustre floral decoration, applied handle, metal top. 
6% inches high. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Harry S. 
Bugbee. 64.46. Covered Bowl. Mold-blown, 
opalescent, silver lustre floral decoration. Diameter 
5% inches. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Harry S. Bugbee. 
64.45. 




VASE. Crown Milano, blown, opalescent white, 
polychrome enamel figures and gold decoration, 
applied, handles. The Mount Washington Glass 
Company, New Bedford, Mass., about 1890. IT 1 /, 
inches high. Gift of Mrs. Grace R. Miller. 68.70. 




117 



TABLE LAMPS. The Libbey Glass Company, 
Toledo, Ohio. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. (left to 
right) Bloion, cut, Sunburst pattern. This lamp 
has always been known as "the Nolan lamp" after 
a blower named C. J. Nolan. About 1900. 40 inches 
high. 51.3. Blown, cut, Ellsmere pattern. This lamp 
was made for the 1893 World's Columbian 
Exposition, Chicago. 33 inches high. 51.2. 




118 




PLATE. Blown, cut, and engraved; Sultana pattern 
in border. Engraved with Libbey sabre trademark 
of 1896-1906. The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, 
Ohio, about 1896. Diameter 12 inches. Gift of 
Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.266. 




VASE. Blown and cut; pattern of stars, shields, 
leaf sprays, and ribbons. The Libbey Glass 
Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 1896-1900. 13 l! >i6 
inches. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.48. 



119 



x.x 



> 



















i VjpzmCl 









'*jM&&ii 





4*r? 



*S- ,/".. X 



;CV ^^>V 



PUNCH BOWL. Blown, cut, pattern similar to 
Corinthian, The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, 
Ohio, about 1900-1902. Diameter 14 inches. Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. Edward G. Kirby. 63.38. Known as 
the "Creseeus Bowl," this piece was presented to 
Cresceus, a world famous trotting horse owned by 
George H. Ketcham of Toledo. Cresceus was the 
holder of several world trotting records. 



STEMWARE. The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, 
Ohio, 1904. Blown, engraved in overall floral 
pattern with fleur de lys. Graduated in height from 
6%£ inches to 3% inches. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 69.53-58. A complete set made for the 1904 St. 
Louis World's Fair. 




120 



VASE. Blown, cased, purple over clear; cut and 
engraved with floral frieze and mitre cuts. The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 
1900-1910. 10y 2 inches high. Gift of C. Justus 
Wilcox. 51.297. 




EPERGNE. Blown, cut, and engraved with floral 
motifs, beaded garlands, and bowknots. The Libbey 
Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 1902. 20% 
inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.12. 



121 




FLOOR LAMP. Blown, cut. variant Corinthian 
pattern. The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, 
1904. 57\-> inches high overall. Gift of 
Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.4. Designed for the 1904 St. 
Louis World's Fair. 



122 



TABLE. Blown, cut, Neola pattern. The Libbey 
Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, 1902. 32 inches high. 
Gift of Oweyis-Illinois, Inc. 51.1. A-C. 
Probably cut by Libbey's master craftsman, John 
Rufus Denman, this table was made especially for 
the 1904 St. Louis World's Fair. 




123 



VASE. Blown, cut, Greek Key pattern. The Libbey 
Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 1907. 11% 
inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.20. 






VASE. Blown, cut in eclectic geometric pattern. 
The Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 
1903-1905. 23 :; 4 inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 51.5. 



VASE. Blown, cut, and engraved with stags. The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 1915. 
18% inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.6. 



124 



PITCHER. Blown, cut, and engraved in eclectic 
floral pattern, applied cut handle and foot. The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, about 
1915-1920. 14 inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 51.19. 












VASE. Blown, cut with pattern of wheat sheaves, 
hobstars and facets. The Libbey Glass Company, 
Toledo, Ohio, about 1910-1915. 18^/ U ; inches high. 
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Frazier Reams, Sr. 68.13. 



125 



: ■ . . 

..::::.::■■■: :;-:- : : ■:■■ 




MODERN GLASS (left to right) Bowl. Blown, 
cased, with mottled pattern; Unica technique. By 
Andries D. Copier (1901- ), N. V. Nederlandsche 
Glassfabriek, Leerdam, Holland. This piece was 
made for the 1939 New York World's Fair. 7% 6 
inches high. 1938. 40.40. Vase, Blown, iridescent 
finish. By Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933). 
United States, about 1910-1915. 20^/i inches high. 
Gift of the W. W. Knight heirs. 69.260. Vase. Blown 
and cased; Graal technique. By Edward Hald 
(1883- ), Orrefors Glassworks, Sweden, about 
1930-1935. 8Vi inches high. Gift of Mrs. C. Justus 
Wilcox. 61.37. Vase. Blown, opaque copper -schmelz 
glass. By Harvey K. Littleton (1922- ), United 
States, 1966. 6 x /-> inches high. 66.133. "The Camorgue 
Vase." Blown, with cire perdue process. By Rene 
Lalique (1860-1945), France, about 1935. 11% 
inches high. Gift of Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 47.43. 



MODERN GLASS 

1895 to the present 



The closing of the 19th century and the early 
years of the 20th century were marked by 
the development of an international Art 
Nouveau style, characterized by sinuous 
line, floral and vegetable motifs, and soft 
evanescent coloration. The glass of this style 
was elegant of outline, although often de- 
liberately distorted, with pale or iridescent 
surfaces. The Art Nouveau style was an ec- 
lectic one, bringing together elements of 
Japanese art, motifs of ancient cultures, and 
natural forms. A favored device of the style 
in glass was an imitation of the nacreous iri- 
descent surface seen on ancient glass which 
had been buried. Much of the Art Nouveau 
glass produced during the years of the 
greatest popularity of the style had been 
generically termed as "art glass." Art glass 
was intended for decorative purposes and 
relied for its effect upon carefully calculated 
coloristic or technically unusual devices. 
However, since the Art Nouveau movement 
was based upon a revolt from the consider- 
ably more elaborate "art glass," it would 
appear more reasonable to view Art Nou- 
veau glass as a distinct category. 

France produced a number of outstanding 
craftsmen, the Daum brothers of Nancy and 
Emile Galle (1846-1904) being among the 
most celebrated practitioners. French work 
in the new idiom is characterized by com- 
plex cameo techniques and subtle shadings. 
Flowers, leaves, fish, and insects were pop- 
ular motifs for these beautifully finished 
pieces. The light, elegant, and continued 
quality of much Art Nouveau glass was in 
direct contrast to the weightiness of con- 
temporaneous cut glass. 

In the United States, Louis Comfort Tiffany 
(1848-1933) was the most noted exponent 
of the style, producing a great variety of 
forms and surfaces, which were widely 
copied in their time and are highly prized 
today. Tiffany was a brilliant designer, suc- 



127 



cessfully combining ancient Egyptian, Jap- 
anese, and Persian motifs in his designs. 

The Art Nouveau style was a major force in 
the decorative arts from 1895 until 1915, al- 
though its waning influence continued 
through the mid-1920's. However, a new 
school of thought known as Functionalism 
had been present since the turn of the cen- 
tury. At first restricted to a small avant- 
garde group of architects and designers, 
Functionalism emerged as the dominant in- 
fluence upon design after World War I. The 
basic tenet of the movement — that function 
should determine form — was not a new con- 
cept, but soon a distinct aesthetic code had 
evolved. Form should be simple, surfaces 
plain, and any ornament should be based 
upon strict geometric relationships. Cubist 
painting had a strong impact on Functional- 
ist design. This new design concept, coupled 
with the sharp post-war reactions to the 
styles and conventions of the preceding dec- 
ades, created an entirely new public taste. 
Brilliant cut glass fell from favor as did the 
pale and lyrical Art Nouveau types. The 
new taste demanded dramatic effects of con- 
trast, stark outline, and complex but chaste 
textural surfaces. Much of this glass was 
cased in red, black, blue, or green, through 
which simple geometric patterns were cut 
to reveal the clear glass beneath. 

The influence of the great international ex- 
positions, which had been considerable in 
the latter half of the 19th century, continued 
in the 20th century. The 1925 Exposition In- 
ternationale des Arts Decoratifs et Indus- 
triels Modernes, Paris, was responsible for 
decided changes in glassmaking. Transpar- 
ent glass in simple basic shapes was pre- 
ferred; ornament was sparingly used or was 
highly formalized. France continued its 
stylistic leadership, producing such noted 
designers as Maurice Marinot (1882-1960) , 
Jean Sala (1895-) , Francois Decorchemont 



(1885-), and Rene Lalique (1860-1945). 
Other glass producing countries were quick 
to take up the new style, and the tenets of 
Functionalism as expressed in the 1920's 
were applied until the outbreak of World 
War II. 

Glass of the 1930's marked the mature ex- 
pression of Functionalism in glass; design 
took on an even more formalized character, 
with subtle, elaborately textured surfaces. 
Traditional techniques of cutting and cop- 
per-wheel engraving were employed, but 
they were put to more contemporary effects. 
Sweden now took the lead in the production 
of fine glass with such outstanding crafts- 
men as Simon Gate (1883-1945) and Edward 
Hald (1883-) of the Orrefors Glassworks, 
and Elis Bergh (1881-1954) of the Kosta 
Glassworks. In the United States, Frederick 
Carder (1863-1963) of the Steuben Glass- 
works and A. Douglas Nash (1885-1940) of 
the Libbey Glass Company were distin- 
guished designers, while other beautiful 
pieces were produced in Europe at such 
firms as the Leerdam works in Holland. 

Glass design of the 1940's reacted against 
the intricate surfaces and formalization of 
the preceding decade. Glass of this period 
tended to be heavy, of great brilliance. 
Technological advances permitted the manu- 
facture of a glass whose ingredients were 
chemically pure and perfectly combined 
mechanically. The sparse decoration was in- 
tended to complement the glass itself. Ex- 
cellent designers existed in Italy, Finland, 
Sweden and the United States, although 
World War II seriously hampered or closed 
production of fine glass for the greater part 
of this decade. 

During the 1950's, glass had begun to follow 
the trend to abstraction which had already 
marked much painting and sculpture. 
Coupled with experiments in form was a 



128 



VASE. Blown, cased, and cameo cut; iridescent 
acid-finished body with lavender iris. By Emile 
Galle (1846-1904), France, about 1900. 14Y> inches 
high. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 
51.360. 





GOBLET. Blown and cased; iridescent orange and 
clear with green threaded and combed leaves. 
By Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933), United 
States, about 1900-1905. 12 inches high. Gift of Mr. 
and Mrs. Edmund T. Collins. 62.73. 



129 



renewed interest in color, which became 
deep and subtly shaded. Elegance of line 
was sought for its own sake, and lightness 
of form was more appreciated. The potential 
of glass as a sculptural medium was explored 
as well. In Italy, Paolo Venini (1895-1959) 
was leading glassmaker in this style, while 
Scandinavia and other European countries 
also produced fine examples. 
Glass of the present decade has expanded 
and developed these stylistic traits, the most 
notable phenomenon being the emergence 
of a new kind of glass craftsman who is both 
designer and blower. A leader in this trend 
was The Toledo Museum of Art, which in 
1962 sponsored a pioneering glassblowing 



seminar, bringing together noted glass 
craftsmen such as Harvey K. Littleton 
(1922-), and Dominick Labino (1910-). 

Subsequent seminars at Toledo and else- 
where have proved that glass could be blown 
outside a factory and have thus prepared 
the way for an entirely new range of glass 
experimentation. The United States has 
been a leader in this development, although 
the movement has now become interna- 
tional, and the style of the future will un- 
doubtedly be strongly influenced by this 
latest trend. A new awareness of glass as a 
material will emerge from these new crafts- 
men who design as they work. 



LALIQUE VASES. Blown, molded, and pressed. Bxj 
Rene Lalique (1860-1945). France, (left to right) 
Grasshopper pattern. About 1920-1925. 11 inches 
high. Gift of the W. W. Knight heirs. Molded birds 
at neck and base. About 1920-1925. 12 1 'j inches 
high. Gift of Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 47.9. Base with 



molded putti. About 1925. 10% inches high. Gift of 
Mr. and Mrs. Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 52.137. Opalescent, 
molded poppies and stems. About 1915. 5% inches 
high. Gift of Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 48.21. Molded leaf 
motifs. About 1920-1930. 5% inches high. Gift of 
Mrs. Meyer Rosenfield. 43.60. 




130 




BOWL. Blown in mold, mottled green. By Francois 
Decorchemont (1885- ), France, about 1925. 
6~U inches high. Gijt of Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 49.1. 




VASE. Blown, cut. The Baccarat Glassworks, 
France, about 1930-1935. 8% inches high. Gift of 
Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 48.3. 



131 



^ 









m 



> 



fi 



c 








H^ 



PUNCH BOWL AND CUPS. Blown with red 
prunts. By A. Douglas Nash (1885-1940), The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, 1931-1935. 
Bowl 7% inches high. Cups 3 inches high. Giit of 
Mrs. Carl R. Megowen in memory of Carl R. 
Megoioen. 68.59. 




132 



CHANDELIER. Blown in mold, chrome steel 
frame. By Simon Gate (1883-1945), Orrejors 
Glassworks, Sweden. 1935. 47 inches high. Gift of 
Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 53.161. One of a group made for 
the Concert Hall, Goteborg, Sweden. 





GROUP OF GOBLETS. Blown, cased, cut, and 
engraved. By A. Douglas Nash (1885-1940), The 
Libbey Glass Company, Toledo, Ohio, 1931-1935. 
(left to right) Experimental design. 10% inches 
high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.155. 
Buckingham pattern. 9% inches high. Gift of 
Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.154. Trafalgar pattern 7 1 /-? 
inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.171. 
Perhaps an experimental pattern. 9% inches high. 
Gift of Libbey Glass Company. 35.18. Similar to 
Venetian pattern. 8~/n inches high. Gift of Libbey 
Glass Company. 35.19. Windsor pattern. 10% inches 
high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.176. Venetian 
pattern. 8% inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, 
Inc. 51.178. Campanille pattern. 9Va inches high. 
Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 51.179. Pompeiian 
pattern. 10 inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 
51.180. 



133 




BOWL. Bloivn and engraved, cut foot. By Sidney 
Waugh (1904- ), The Steuben Glassworks, 
Corning, New York, 1935. 7% inches high. Gift of 
William E. Levis. 36.36. 



PLATE. Blown, sandblasted design. By Andreas D. 
Copier (1901- ), N. V. Nederlandsche 
Glassfabriek, Leerdam, Holland, 1939. Diameter 
20V± inches. 40.39. Made for the 1939 New York 
World's Fair. 




134 




/ 




I _'i' lii fi i«ff w 



THREE VASES. Modern American Series. By 
Edwin W. Fuerst (1903- ) , Owens-Illinois, Inc., 
Libbey Division, Toledo, Ohio, (left to right) 
Blown and cut. 8~/% inches high. Gift of Libbey 
Glass Company. 43.18. Blown, air-trap feet. 10"/% 
inches high. Gift of Owens-Illinois, Inc. 69.38. 
Expanded mold blown "Spiral Optic" ribs. 9% 
inches high. Gift of Libbey Glass Company. 40.153. 



I 



* 



i 



\I 







VASE. Blown, cut. By Elis Bergh (1881-1954), 
Kosta Glassworks, Sweden, 1939. 12 ? /z> inches high. 
40.42. 



VASE. Blown, light yellow with blue and black 
abstractions. By Paolo Venini (1895-1959), Murano, 
Venice, 1950. 9% inches high. Gift of the Italian 
Government. 54.49. 





135 




t 



VASE. Blown and engraved. By Vicke Lindstrand 
(1904- ), The Orrejors Glassworks, Sweden, 
about 1950. 10% inches high. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Hugh J. Smith, Jr. 51.359. 



* 




VASE. Blown, eased, with gold foil squares. By 
Toshichi Iwata, Japan, 1956. 8] 2 inches high. Gift 
of the artist. 56.54. 




136 



-SPHERE WITH PRUNTS." Blown, manganese 
dioxide glass. By C. Fritz Dreisbaek (1941- ), 
United States, 1968. 4Y> inches high. Gift of the 
artist. 68.84. 




'•OBJECTS IN SPACE." Blown, air-trap bubbles, 
green and amber glass. By Dominick Labino 
(1910- ), United States, 1966. 3% inches high. 
66.131. 



VASE. Blown, jumed iridescence. By Erwin Eisch 
(1927- ), Germany, November 29, 1967. 4 inches 
high. 68.85. 




137 




"PEACE NOW." Blown, sandblasted, copper blue 
luster; copper-plated arm. By Marvin Lipofsky 
(1938- ), Berkeley, California, 1968. 6 inches 
high. 68.82. 



"BOTTLE BOOGIE." Blown, incised linear pattern, 
brown, yellow, black. By Joel Philip Myers 
(1934- ), United States. lO^i inches high. 68.79. 




138 



SOME TECHNICAL TERMS 




Agate glass. Colored glass fused in patterns 
resembling the semi-precious stone, agate. 
Other semi-precious stones were also imi- 
tated in glass. 

Alabastron. Small, cylindrical flask for un- 
guents or oil. So-called because such vessels 
were made of alabaster, as well as glass and 
other materials. 

Annealing oven. Oven in which glass is 
slowly cooled under control to resolve 
stresses induced in forming. Also called 
lehr. 

Blown Glass. Glass formed by a technique 
in which hot glass is inflated with air from 
a pipe by mouth or with a machine. 

Blowpipe. The basic tool used in inflating 
blown glass. Steel tube about four feet long. 

Cane. Solid glass rod, often of concentric 
cased layers. 

Casing. Two different parallel colors of glass 
blown together. 

Cristallo. Thin, clear soda-lime glass fa- 
vored by the Venetians. 

Diamond-point engraving. Design incised in 
the surface of glass with a hard stone point. 

Diatreta glass. Term used to designate a 
small group of glasses from the 4th century 
A.D. wherein the solid wall of the vessel is 
surrounded by a basket-like network of in- 
terlaced ornaments. 

Enamel. Colored vitreous powders painted 
on the glass in solution and fused there by 
means of firing for decorative effects. 

Facet-cutting. Grinding the surface of the 
glass in broad planes which are subse- 
quently polished for decorative effect. 

Fire polish. Final heating of glass vessel 
before annealing. 



Flashing. Application of a thin layer of 
opaque or colored glass to the surface of 
clear glass, or vice versa. 

Flint glass. Glass containing a large propor- 
tion of lead oxide for high refraction and 
facility of engraving. Also called lead glass. 

Furnace. Enclosure in which the constitu- 
ents of glass are combined at temperatures 
of about 2000 degrees F. 

Fused. Glass elements heated to the point 
at which they will adhere to each other but 
not flow together. 

Gather. The mass of molten glass picked up 
on the end of a blowpipe or pontil from the 
furnace. 

Glory hole. An opening giving access to the 
hot interior of a reheating furnace for hand 
working of glass. 

Gold-band glass. A variant of ribbon glass 
employing strips of gold foil fused between 
transparent glass. 

Humpen. Cylindrical drinking vessel usu- 
ally decorated with enamelled designs; 
made during the 16th through 18th 
centuries. 

Latbe-turning or lathe-cutting. Shaping a 
vessel by rotating it against a stationary 
abrasive surface or edge. 

Latticinio. Broadly speaking, the various 
lace-like techniques combining fine canes of 
lattimo with clear glass. 

Lattimo (from the Italian "latte": milk). 
Opaque, milk-white glass often used in 
strips. 

Lead glass. See flint glass. 

Lehr. See annealing oven. 

Massive- or mitre-cutting. Deep cutting and 
forming of designs by abrasion on thick or 



139 



solid glass, usually by stone wheels. 

Metal. Molten glass; also the material of 
glass. 

Millefiori (Italian: thousand flowers). Tech- 
nique wherein bundles of multicolored 
canes are fused, drawn out to a small diam- 
eter, and sliced when cool for use as beads, 
inlays, paperweights, or (when re-fused in 
molds) for open vessels. 

Mold-blown glass. Vessel inflated inside a 
negative mold. 

Pate-de-verre (French: glass paste). Finely 
powdered glass softened by heating and 
pressed into a mold; used to reproduce 
carved gem cameos. 

Pokal. German word for goblet. 

Pontil (colloquial "punty"). Metal rod tem- 
porarily fused to the bottom of a hot glass 
vessel for use as a handle during removal 
of the blowpipe and later forming. 

Pressed glass. Object formed by dropping a 
glob of molten glass between the negative 
and positive parts of a mold. 

Prunt. Blob of glass, sometimes tooled or 
mold-pressed, applied to vessel for decora- 
tive effect. 



Ribbon glass. Strips of multicolored glass 
fused in molds to form vessels. 

Roemer. Hollow-stemmed goblet, often of 
large size, usually decorated with prunts. 

Sand-core glass. Vessel formed by applica- 
tion of molten glass over a friable sandy 
core. Core was scraped out after cooling 
of completed vessel. 

Schwarzlot (German: black lead). Decora- 
tion painted in translucent black enamel 
with details incised through the painting. 

Stained glass. Pieces of translucent colored 
glass painted with enamel designs and 
joined by lead bands for use in windows. 

Staining. A colored surface produced by 
chemicals rather than by an actual glass 
coating. See also casing and flashing. 

Stipple-engraving. Pitting the surface of the 
glass with a hard stone point. 

Wheel-engraving. Decoration achieved by 
grinding glass with an abrasive wheel. 

Zwischengold, zwischensilber (German: be- 
tween gold, between silver). Design in gold 
or silver leaf enclosed between two pre- 
cisely fitting glass shapes. 







140 



SUGGESTED READING 



GENERAL 

British Museum, Masterpieces of Glass, 

London, 1968. 

Corning Museum of Glass, Journal of Glass 
Studies, (published annually) Corning, 1959- 
Elville, E. M., The Collector's Dictionary of 
Glass, London, 1961. 

Haynes, E. B., Glass Throiigh the Ages, 
Rev. ed., Harmondsworth, 1959. 

Kampfer, Fritz, and Beyer, K. G., Glass: A 
World History, Greenwich, 1966. 

Labino, Dominick, Visual Art in Glass, 
Dubuque, 1968. 

Savage, George, Glass, New York, 1965. 

Vavra, J. R., 5000 Years of Glassmaking, 
Prague, n.d. 

Wilkinson, O. N, Old Glass, New York, 
1968. 

Wills, Geoffrey, Country Life Pocket Book 
of Glass, London, 1966. 

ANCIENT 

Corning Museum of Glass, Glass from the 
Ancient World, the Ray Winfield Smith 
Collection, Corning, 1957. 

EUROPEAN 

Buckley, Francis, A History of Old English 

Glass, London, 1925. 

Buckley, Wilfred, European Glass, Boston 

and New York, 1926. 

AMERICAN 

Daniel, D., Cut and Engraved Glass, 1771- 

1905, New York, 1950. 

McKearin, G. & H., American Glass, New 
York, 1941. 



McKearin, G. & H., Two Hundred Years of 
American Blown Glass, Garden City, N. Y., 
1950. 

Pearson, J. M. & D., American Cut Glass for 
the Discriminating Collector, New York, 
1965. 

Revi, A. C, American Art Nouveau Glass, 
Camden, N.J., 1968. 

Revi, A. C, American Cut and Engraved 
Glass, New York, 1965. 

MODERN 

Beard, G. W., Modern Glass, London, 1968. 

PUBLICATIONS OF THE TOLEDO 
MUSEUM OF ART 

HANDBOOKS 

American Glass, Millard J. Rogers, Jr. 

Ancient and Near Eastern Glass, Rudolf 
M. Riefstahl. 

Early American Pressed Glass, Millard J. 
Rogers, Jr. 

European Glass, William Hutton. 
Modern Glass, John W. Keefe. 

EXHIBITION CATALOGUES 
Exhibition of East Asiatic Glass, Dorothy 
L. Blair, 1948. 

Art in Crystal (Libbey Glass), 1951. 

The New England Glass Company, 1818- 

1888, Millard F. Rogers, Jr., 1963. 

Libbey Glass, A Tradition of 150 Years, 
John W. Keefe, 1968. 



141 



wmrg&m 



m 
m 




tfd 




m 






xm 



\° 



/> 



**r*m 



^ 



*0wmw0f 



^3K 




nT\^q 



Its.* 





\K^0. 



m 



^ 



I 




r\ 



'" r "ffl 





n 



I 




*!4*4r l 0W0' 




^V^3.-, 



H 




V*,, 



# 



Ifltej? * 



MP 




V